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Antidesma venosum

(Tassel Berry)

This evergreen to semi-deciduous tree or shrub grows to 4 m tall, with a dense, roundish crown. The old stems are buff-grey in colour. The branchlets are brown and are scattered with pale grey lenticels and the new twigs are very hairy. The large leaves are leathery, oval shiny dark green above and brown/green below with orange/brown hairs. The leaves and shoots are eaten by game. It produces green flowers, male and female flowers on separate trees, in summer followed by colourful fruit that ripens in stages so they are green, white, yellow, pinkish, bright red, dark red and purple. fruits. These are enjoyed by the fruit eating birds, antelope, monkeys and people, but they are not easily digested. They taste sweet and slightly acidic, like mulberries. The female trees produce berries so plant a few to ensure that you will have fruit. They are eaten by Kudu, nyala, impala, monkeys, baboons, guinea fowl, francolin and other birds. The leaves are browsed by kudu, elephant, nyala and bushbuck. This species is a very decorative, neat shade tree and is suitable for gardens and bird parks. It is also used as a screen plant in a shrubbery. This tree is frost tender so should only be planted in frost free areas in the sun, and not suitable for a Highveld garden. An ideal plant for containers. It attracts birds and butterflies. The wood is used for hut building and fuel. Bark, leaves and fruit are used medicinally for stomach complaints. The roots are said to be toxic but if you bath in water with roots added to the it, it will cure bodily aches and pains. The flowers smell like honey or rotting watermelon. The name is derived from the Greek 'anti'=against and Johannes Burman's term for poison. (He was a friend of Linnaeus). This plant is used as an anti-venom for snake bite.

Cryptocarya latifolia

(Broad-Leaved Quince)

An evergreen, medium tree with a dense crown. The bark is grey-brown, smooth with fine vertical fissures. The leaves are leathery, dark green with fine hairs above and greenish brown below. The white flowers are small and borne in branched sprays and they open in spring .The spherical fruit ripens to black. It should be planted in sun or semi-shade. It is medicinal and magical and it also attracts mammals. The name is derived from the Greek 'kryptos'= hidden and 'karya'= a nut as the succulent fruit is hidden.

Cussonia spicata

(Common Cabbage Tree)

This small evergreen tree is fast growing in the sun. The green/yellow flowers open in Autumn. This decorative tree is a lovely form plant with bright green leaves crowded at the tips of the branches and long bare stems. The fruit are fleshy and purple when ripe and they attract birds and butterflies. Ideal for a small garden but it does have aggressive roots so don’t plant less than 5 meters from a wall or a pool. It requires good drainage and thrives on lots of compost. The Leaves are browsed by elephant and kudu and people eat the roots to obtain moisture. The roots and bark are also eaten by black rhino, baboon and bushpigs. It is frost tender in cold gardens. An infusion of the root is used medicinally for malaria, stomach complaints and V D. The roots are also chewed for virility and strength. They taste similar to sugar cane. The grated bark is used in hot water to make a poultice for cramp and muscle spasm. This solution is also used to bath newborn babies to ensure a strong child and prevent skin rashes and pimples. Some folk believe that it one is planted near the homestead, it will ensure fat, healthy children. Dried flowers are added to snuff. The leaves are used as a fish poison but are palatable to cattle and goats. Named for Pierre Cusson 1727-1783 who was a French Jesuit, mathematician, physician, professor and botanist who traveled extensively and wrote many publications.

Euphorbia ingens

(Common Tree Euphorbia)

An upright, succulent tree with a dark green crown which is well rounded and often shaped like a hot-air balloon. Grows up to 12 m. The branches are segmented with spines running along the ridges of the segments. It produces small, greenish yellow flowers on the ridges of the topmost segment of every branch from autumn to winter. The fruit is a round 3-lobed capsule which turns red to purple when ripening. These plants are easy to grow and make a wonderful addition to a succulent garden or rockery. As it is a succulent it needs little to no maintenance, being a very drought hardy plant. It does best in the open sun. Because of its poisonous latex/sap no pests seem to bother these trees. The latex of this tree is extremely toxic and can cause severe skin irritations, blindness and severe illness to humans and animals if swallowed. Grass is soaked in the latex and used as fish poison. it is also used medicinally in small amounts to treat cancer. The wood is used for boats, doors and planks. The trunk is first burnt to solidify the latex before it is cut as the latex in the eyes can cause blindness. It can be used for hedging and screening and an effective thorny barrier. It is frost tender. The fruit is enjoyed by monkeys while porcupine and cane rats eat the roots. This protective plant is used in a ritual cleansing of a home after childbirth. The name is derived from the Greek eu=well and phorbe=pasteur referring to the Greek physician Euphorbus.

Olea europaea subsp. africana

(Wild Olive)

One of the oldest cultivated trees and is the symbol of peace as when Noah sent a dove from his Ark, it returned with an Olive leaf. In ancient Rome an olive branch was held to plead for peace and in ancient Greece, Irene, the Goddess of peace loved olives. The tree represents abundance and drives away evil spirits. This medium sized, evergreen tree is frost resistant, drought resistant and grows in the sun. It is neatly shaped and has a dense spreading crown. The white/green flowers open in summer and they attract bees and butterflies. The flowers are replaced with edible, purple berries which attract birds - insect and fruit eaters like starlings, pigeons, parrots and louries. They are also enjoyed by people, monkeys, baboons, mongooses, bushpigs, and warthogs. The fruit is also used to produce black dye. It's useful for nesting sites. The leaves are browsed by game and stock and is a fodder tree for mammals. It is useful as a formal, pruned hedge or an informal hedge/screen. Very popular as a bonsai subject. They sometimes have aggressive roots so plant 4 meters from a building or a pool. It is protected in the North West Province, the Cape and the Free State. There are numerous medicinal uses for eye lotions, tonics for high blood pressure, kidney ailments, anointing oil and sore throats. Wild Olive tonic is available commercially and is used to treat headaches, colds and to build the immune system. It is believed that inhaling the smoke from a Wild Olive fire will cure a hangover. Magical uses are to protect against lightening, by putting a branch in an open doorway. Leaves are scattered to make a peaceful place and they bring luck. The beautiful golden brown wood is used for furniture, ornaments and fencing posts. As the wood is strong and durable, it is used for walking sticks, knobkieries and spear handles. It grows along rivers and is useful to stabilize the soil. A must for a bird garden! This is a popular bonsai subject. The name is derived from the Greek elaia and the latin olea = classical latin name for the olive.

Pappea capensis

(Jacket-Plum)

This long-lived, hardy, semi deciduous, small to medium sized tree grows to a height of 2-8 m with a spreading, rounded crown.It is found in savanna grassland or rocky outcrops everywhere in SA except the Western Cape. Under ideal conditions it can grow at a moderate rate but can be slow-growing under dry and/or cold conditions. The leaves are simple and oblong, hard-textured and wavy. The leaf margin may vary from sharply toothed (especially in young growth) to almost smooth in mature growth. The new leaves in Spring are pinkish bronze. The greenish, scented flowers are borne on catkins in the axils of the leaves in summer, followed by round, green, velvety fruits which split open to reveal bright red flesh with a dark brown to black seed imbedded within. The edible fruit is eaten by people, various birds and animals, like monkeys, which in turn distribute the seeds in their droppings. The leaves are browsed by game such as elephant, giraffe, kudu, nyala, bushbuck, and grey duiker as well as domestic stock animals. The sweetly scented flowers attract a wide variety of insects which in turn attract many birds. The seed is parasitized by a small, bright red bug (Leptocoris hexophtalma) which sucks the oil from the seed on the ground below the tree. Oil is extracted from the seed and is used medicinally against baldness, ringworm, nosebleeds, chest complaints, eye infections, and venereal disease. It is also used to oil guns and to make soap. The fruit is used to make a preserve. Bark is also used as a protective charm. The wood is hard and is used for sticks. Plant it 5 meters from a building or a pool. It has non-aggressive roots and is suitable as a street tree or in a parking lot. It is the host plant to the Common Hairtail, Gold-banded Forester and the Pearl-spotted Charaxes butterflies. Lovely in a wildlife garden. Named for Carl Wilhelm Ludwig Pappe (1803-1862) German physician, economic botanist and plant collector. He studied medicine and botany at Leipzig before moving to Cape Town in 1831 where he practised as a doctor before moving to UCT as a Professor of botany.

Podocarpus latifolius

(Real Yellowwood, Opregte Geelhout)

This is a slow-growing, large, evergreen tree, which grows to between 20 and 30 m tall. It occurs naturally on misty mountain slopes with a high rainfall so it needs lots of water. It is a protected tree in South Africa. It is very long-lived and is able to withstand some frost. The unusual textural appearance of the leaves makes it a good contrast or background for other trees. The colourful receptacles of the female tree are most attractive. This tree would make an interesting container plant and can withstand short periods indoors. The leaf size and interesting bark are good characteristics for bonsai. It produces greenish flowers in spring and the wood is used for furniture. When the berry-like receptacles ripen, birds such as pigeons and turacos feed on them. They are also eaten by monkeys, bushpigs and sometimes by people. The bark is used in traditional medicine. Plant it about 4 meters from a building and a pool. The name is derived from the Greek podos = foot and karpos - fruit, referring to the fleshy foot , the receptacle, on which the fruit develops.

Rhamnus prinoides

(Dogwood)

Grows in most parts of the country to 4-6meters. It makes a rounded, evergreen screen which is attractive with its glossy green leaves which are browsed by game. The leaves are used in beer and wine making. The inconspicuous flowers are greenish, blooming between November and January, in small clusters. They are loved by the bees, the Forest-king butterfly and other insects which attract the insect eating birds. The fruits are about the size of a pea (about 5 mm in diameter), roundish and clearly divided into three compartments. They appear between December and June. They are fleshy and green, turning red and then purple as they ripen. The fruit is loved by many bird species like starlings, bulbuls, barbets and francolins, so it's a great addition to a bird garden. The wood is white to yellow, often streaked with brown, pink, red or green and is hard and heavy. It is too small to be generally useful, although walkingsticks may be made of it. It is tough and frost resistant and grows well in moist soils. It is evergreen and is good for small gardens and hedges, especially in cold areas. It is widely used as a protective charm to ward off lightning and evil influences from homes and crops and to bring luck in hunting. It is also used medicinally to cleanse the blood, to treat pneumonia, rheumatism, sprains, skin complaints, respiratory infections, stomach ache, and as a gargle. It has non aggressive roots and will grow well in containers. Plant it about 3 meters from a building and a pool. The name is derived from the Celtic ram, and later the Greek rhamnos= tuft of branches.

Rhoicissus tridentata

(Bushman's Grape)

A strong, branched climber with decorative, serrated, grass green leaves can be trained into a large shrub. The yellow/green flowers open in summer and attract sunbirds. They are followed by fleshy, red back fruits which are loved by birds and people. These are used medicinally in childbirth, for fertility, colds, stomach, kidney and bladder aliments. It is made into jam, jelly and vinegar It is ideal for pergolas or as a groundcover for large shady areas, a worthy indoor foliage pot plant if kept in trim. Water it regularly. It attracts birds and butterflies and is browsed by game and black rhino. The tubers are eaten by bushpigs, porcupine and baboon although they are said to be poisonous. The name is derived fro the Greek rhoia, = pomegranate; kissos=ivy. Most plants in this genus climb and have tendrils, but the reference to pomegranate is obscure.

Searsia chirindensis (Rhus chirindensis)

(Red Currant)

The red currant is a semi-deciduous shrub to small tree, 6-10 m tall although it may reach 20 m. Young and coppicing branches are armed with spines, although the mature tree is spineless. The flowers are small, yellowish green and are borne in clusters at the ends of the branches from August to March. Male and female flowers occur on separate trees. The edible fruit, which is round, shiny, slightly fleshy, dark reddish brown are borne from December to March, in heavy clusters which can weigh down the branches. They are also enjoyed by people and fruit eating birds like pigeons, louries, bulbuls, barbets and parrots as well as monkeys. The leaves and the bark are browsed by Black Rhino, kudu, duiker, bushbuck and nyala. It can be grown in full sun or partial shade and should be planted in well-drained, composted soil. It does not have an aggressive root system. It will tolerate moderate frosts and is drought hardy. The sap of this tree is used in traditional medicine for treating heart complaints. The bark is also used to strengthen the body, to stimulate circulation and in the treatment of rheumatism and mental disorders. It is the larval host for the Macken's Dart, Burnished Opal, Mooi River Opal, Namaqua Arrowhead and the Pringle's Arrowhead butterflies. The wood is red and is used to make furniture. We have had Mopani worms on the tree in our nursery which delighted my staff as they eat them. A lovey shade tree. Plant it 4 meters from a building or a pool. The name is derived from the Greek rhous, = red; referring to the fruits or the autumn leaves. Named for Paul Sears( 1891-1990) a US plant ecologist and professor who authored many books.

Searsia lancea (Rhus lancea)

(Karee)

This tree has recently changed its name from Rhus lancea. It is wide spread and is only missing from Kwazulu Natal. It grows to 5-10 meters and makes a lovely evergreen shade tree, hedge, wind break and roadside tree. It is in the top 5 frost and drought hardy trees. Our grandsons loved climbing these trees when they were little as they branch low down if left to their own devices. It attracts birds and butterflies and the fruit is enjoyed by our staff, although it is sour and it is traditionally also used to make mead or tea. It is also eaten by birds like bulbuls and the fallen fruit is eaten by guineafowl and francolins. The leaves and bark produce a brown dye. The leaves are also eaten by game like kudu, roan and sable, so it’s a good fodder tree on a game farm. This tree indicates surface or underground water and it does not have aggressive roots. The wood is used as fencing posts as it is termite proof. The bark is used for tanning. Bushmen used the branches as shepherd's crooks. It is protected in the Northern Cape and the Jacobsdal area in the Free State. It is browsed by game . Plant it 5 meters from a building or a pond. It is used medicinally as roots, stem bark and leaves treat skin diseases. Roots are used for abdominal and chest complaints and the leaves are used for measles. Their vapour is inhaled for a cough. The name is derived fro the Greek rhous, = red; referring to the fruits or the autumn leaves. Named for Paul Sears( 1891-1990) a US plant ecologist and professor who authored many books.

Rhus pentheri ( Rhus pentheri )

(Crowberry)

An evergreen small sized tree. It is frost resistant, drought resistant, and grows in full sun. The yellow/green flowers open in Summer and they attract birds. It has non-aggressive roots. It is a useful tree on a game farm as the leaves are browsed by black rhino, impala, nyala and kudu. Monkeys eat the roots. The edible fruit is enjoyed by birds and people. The name is derived fro the Greek rhous, = red; referring to the fruits or the autumn leaves.

Zanthoxylum capense

(Small Knobwood)

Occurs in the Transvaal, Swaziland and Natal. This small, mutistemmed tree grows to about 5 m in the sun or semi shade in the dry woodlands on rocky slopes. It’ s a protected tree in South Africa with glossy green leaves that have a strong citrus smell when crushed, the thorns are straight and brown and fade to grey on cone shaped protuberance when old. The flowers are white/green and are sweetly scented. They attract insects and insect eating birds. It is both drought and frost hardy. The citrus swallowtail larvae, White-banded Swallowtail, Green-banded Swallowtail and the Emperor Swallowtail feed off the leaves while the fruit is eaten by birds, monkeys and baboons. The leaves are browsed by kudu, klipspringer and grey duiker. The fruit is chewed for stomach aches, colic, flatulence, cramps and pain. Crushed leaves are made into a tea which is drunk for stomach upsets, diarrhoea, cramps and intestinal worms. The crushed leaves of Artemesia afra and the Knobwood were used during the 1918 Flu epidemic and made into a strong tea. It is used for colds, flu, coughs and a gargle.The bark is used for snake bite and gall-sickness in cattle and the twigs are used as toothbrushes. The crushed seeds are used as perfume. Pounded bark is made into a tea and drunk for blood conditions and also applied to skin eruptions, snake bite and toothache. The wood is yellow and is used for implements and walking sticks which are considered to be a protective charm. The leaves can be left in oil in a warm place for 4 days. This is used to massage tired feet. The pungent leaves can be added to pot-pourri or used with Artemesia leaves to make an insect-repellant pot-pourri. Itt is useful for containers as it has non aggressive roots.

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