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Aloe aculeata

(Prickly Aloe)

A low growing Aloe with a very tall, yellow flower spike, which attracts the sunbirds. The leaves have spines on both the upper and under surfaces and the name aculeate means spines. It occurs naturally in Limpopo and Mpumalanga, so protect from the cold if you have a frosty garden. This is the aloe that was depicted on our 10 c coin. The word Aloe comes from the Greek and refers to the bitter leaf gel.

Aloe arborescens

(Krantz Aloe)

This evergreen shrub is frost resistant and fast growing. It grows happily in the sun, shade or semi-shade. The lovely orange flowers open in winter and they attract birds and butterflies. This aloe makes a good thorny barrier and will thrive in a container. It is a wonderful medicinal plant and I’ve used the leaf sap successfully for an allergic reaction to Ornithogallum leaf sap. I cut the leaves in half, lengthwise and made them into bandages and they certainly did the trick. They are also used to treat Xray burns, burns and sunburn. Leaf decoctions are used during childbirth. It is also used by the Zulu as a sprinkling charm to protect against storms. The leaf sap is used to promote wound healing as it is anti-bacterial, anti-ulcer and anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and hypoglycaemic. The are numerous cancer cures using this leaf sap. Decoctions of the leaves are used in childbirth and to treat sick calves. In the Transkei it is used for stomach ache and given to prevent chickens from getting sick. One of our staff puts slices of the leaves in the birdbaths that our chickens drink from and her granny taught her that when she was little. This is the Aloe that was used in the Orient to treat irradiation burn victims of Hiroshima. The word Aloe comes from the Greek and refers to the bitter leaf gel.

Aloe now Aloidendron barberae (bainesii)

(Tree Aloe)

This well-known tall Aloe is a favourite with landscapers who want to make a statement in a garden. It is an architectural plant that can grow as tall is 18 meters with a trunk of 1m in the wild. It is fast growing and likes water. The flowers are pinky orange and occur during winter. These flowers attract the sunbirds. The plant is also used for nesting sites of other birds. Protect them from frost for the first few winters. It is successful if planted in a succulent or Aloe garden or rockery. They are susceptible to leaf scale which is a grey. I use Spray and cook which suffocates them. One could also use an insecticide. They can then be removed from the leaves with a soft brush or cloth. Medicinally the sap is used to treat burns, skin irritations and insect bites. Don't plant it too close to walls, pathways or decking as the stem expands with age. The word Aloe comes from the Greek and refers to the bitter leaf gel.Robert Allen Dyer (1874) named this Aloe in honour of Mary Elizabeth Barber 1818-1899 who was a botanist, entomologist, painter and poet. She was a noted authority on South African flora. This is a protected plant in South Africa.

Aloe ferox

(Bitter Aloe)

This evergreen aloe is happy in the sun. It occurs from the Cape, Kwazulu Natal, Free State and Lesotho. It was first utilised and painted on rocks by the Khoi. The beautiful orange-red flowers occur in winter and attract birds and butterflies and children who suck the nectar which is said to be narcotic. It is single-stemmed, grows to 3 meters and is quite dramatic in flower. This Aloe was first introduced to Europe in 1700. It is medicinal and the healing sap is exported for the medicine trade. The dried sap has been exported since 1760 It is used as a laxative and to treat arthritis, rheumatism, hypertension and stress. It is also used in hair and skin cream products. It is often used as a skin lightening gel. It is rich in amino acids and minerals. Don't use this medicine during pregnancy. The leaf sap is used to treat burns. The chopped leaves and a bucket of wild rosemary and khaki bos are left over night to steep in boiling water and this water is used to bath dogs as a tick repellent. The leaves are browsed while the flowers are enjoyed by monkeys and baboon. They are also made into a delicious jam which is similar to watermelon jam. It is used in a rockery but is very slow growing. The word Aloe comes from the Greek and refers to the bitter leaf gel.

Aloe greatheadii was A.davyana

(Aloe Davyana)

This Aloe is stemless or has a short stem, and more or less spotted yellowish green leaves with brownish or whitish lines on the upper surface parallel to the axis of the leaf and yellow to light brown teeth on the margins. Each rosette can produce several branched inflorescences, and each inflorescence can have up to ten racemes with flowers that range in colour from dark red to pink. Its flowering time is in winter. This is the Aloe that ones sees in the Highveld grasslands in winter. It is drought and frost resistant but requires sun. It attracts nectar eating birds and butterflies. It is medicinal as the leaf sap is used for blisters, bits, stings, burns, sore and wounds. It is successfully used for snake bite and sunburn. The flowers last well in the vase. The word Aloe comes from the Greek and refers to the bitter leaf gel.

Aloe marlothii

(Mountain Aloe)

This large, evergreen aloe is usually single stemmed and can grow to 7m. It is frost resistant, drought resistant, and is happy in the full sun or semi shade. The orange flowers are seen in winter and have a distinctive horizontal/slanted shape. Children suck the sweet nectar from the flowers which attract birds and butterflies. Flowers are also enjoyed by monkeys and baboon. The leaves are also browsed by game.It is used medicinally as the leaves and roots are used for roundworm and the dried leaves are ground for snuff. 1 cup of chopped leaves in boiled in 4 cups of water for 10 minutes. It then cools and is strained and fed to horses in a bottle to treat horse sickness. The sap is also used for stomach ailments and for increasing milk for lactation. Roots produce dye. This is an architectural plant that will be a focal point in a garden. The word Aloe comes from the Greek and refers to the bitter leaf gel. Named for Hermann Wilhelm Rudolph Marloth ( 1855-1931) a German born botanist, pharmacist, explorer and plant collector. He studied pharmacy and chemistry at the universities of Berlin and Rostocka. He worked as a professor of chemistry at the now Stellenbosch University and he botanised widely in Namibia. He wrote many papers on botany and his major work was a six volume Flora of South Africa (1913-1932) He was Chairman of the Mountain Club (1901-1906)

Bauhinia galpinii

(Pride of De Kaap)

A small, evergreen tree which is water wise, has non-invasive roots and grows in the sun. The brick red/orange flowers are eye catching and occur in summer lasting for six months. They attract insect and nectar eating birds as well as butterflies as it is the larval host plant for Emperor and Playboy butterflies. It is also host to several moth species. It is a fodder plant for mammals like black rhino, kudu, bushbuck and grey duiker. The louries eat the flower buds and some butterfly species breed in the pods and others feed on the leaves. It is useful for formal pruned hedging or informal hedging or screening. The flexible stems are woven into baskets and used for roofing. It is both frost and drought resistant.A decoction of the seed is taken to stimulate menstruation. Named after Casper Bauhin 1560-1624 and Johan Bauhin 1541-1613 who were Swiss-French botanists and herbalists.

Bulbine frutescens

(Stalked Bulbine)

These occur naturally in the Cape, the Free State and KwaZulu Natal. This hardy, evergreen groundcover is dependable as it is frost resistant, water wise and fast growing in the sun. There are both orange or yellow flowering forms and they flower all year. Plant with white Osteospermum for a lovely show. The flowers attract birds and butterflies. It is a medicinal plant as the leaf gel has excellent healing, antiseptic properties and is used for relieving stings, burns, rashes, liver spots, blisters, itchy spots, fever blisters, cracked lips, cold sores, cracked finger nails, mouth ulcers, and cold sores. An infusion of a few leaves in a cup of boiling water , is left to stand and then strained and drunk for coughs, colds and arthritis. It is used magically as an emetic if the patient is going mad after being bewitched. The leaves are eaten as a relish. It will be ideal for small gardens and the flowers are long lasting in a vase. The name comes from the Latin for an onion or a bulb which is ironical as they are not bulbs. Frutescens means 'growing in a shrubby fashion'. Propagate from seed or division.

Burchellia bubalina

(Wild Pomegranate)

This small sized, evergreen tree grows to 2,5m x 1,5m. It is a slow growing, attractive, ornamental shrub that tolerates partial shade but it needs protection from the very cold winter winds and extreme frost. The tubular orange flowers occur in Spring-Summer and they attract birds like the bulbuls, starlings, barbets and mousebirds as well as butterflies as they produce copious nectar and are edible. It is suitable for containers as it has non-aggressive roots. Traditionally the roots are added to body washes and used to prepare a love charm. Named for William John Burchell 1782-1863 an English explorer, naturalist, traveler, artist and author. He worked at Kew Gardens. In 1810 he traveled to Cape Town and collected 50 000 specimens which he took back to the UK. His name is also used in Burchell's zebra and Burchell's coucal.

Crocosmia aurea

(Falling Stars)

This deciduous bulb’s flowers grow to 1m so they are frost resistant. It is fast growing doing well in shade, semi-shade or sun. The orange flowers in summer attract birds, the insect eaters, as well as butterflies. It is great for wetlands as well as containers that are well watered. The corms are used medicinally for dysentery, diarrhoea and infertility. The flowers are long lasting in the vase and very beautiful in the garden. It is ideal for small gardens. The name is derived from the Greek 'krokos'= saffron and 'osme'=smell.This refers to the scent when dried flowers are placed in water.

Gladiolus dalenii

(Gladiolus)

These beautiful bulbs bear yellow and orange flowers in late summer. It is pollinated by sunbirds that are attracted to the nectar. They are undemanding bulbs which do benefit from liberal amounts of good compost. The leaves are used to make ropes and the bushpigs enjoy eating the corms. The ground corm is ground into a fine meel, and this is used medicinally to treat chest ailments caused by sorcery, colds and dysentry. The Sotho and Zulu make a tea from the corm to treat coughs and colds. The corms and leaves are burnt and the inhaled smoke is said to clear a blocked nose. It is also used as a good luck charm, a love charm. and a fertility charm for sterility in women. The flowers can be eaten fresh or they can be added to cooked vegetables, stews or soups.These bulbs were taken to England in the 1700's where is was cultivated in Greenhouses and many hybids have been developed. The name is derived fro the Latin gladiolus = a small sword which refers to the shape of the leaves. This is a protected plant in South Africa.

Halleria lucida

(Tree Fuchsia)

This small, evergreen tree, is frost resistant, drought resistant, fast growing in sun or semi-shade. The word lucida means bright and it refers to the shiny, bright leaves. In summer the orange flowers attract bees and birds - insect, fruit and nectar eaters and it is used for nesting sites so it’s a great choice for a bird garden. The berries attract pigeons, louries, parrots, thrush, bulbuls, robins and white-eyes. The flowers are full of nectar and this gives rise to the Xhosa name that means 'free food'. or 'birds beer'. This attracts sunbirds, white eyes and even weavers. It also attracts butterflies. It is useful for formal pruned hedging or informal hedging/screening. It has a lovely drooping habit. It is medicinal as the leaves are soaked in water which is then dripped into the ears for earache. It is also magical and is used as a charm against evil, lightening and bad weather. This is done by burning the trees and using the ash mixed with fat to rub onto sticks cut from Rhamnus prinoides. These are driven into the soil. Twigs are burnt when offering sacrifices to the ancestors. On a river walk in the Cape I struggled to identify the Halleria and it was only when I saw the black fruit did I realize what it was. I have never seen them that tall in Gauteng. It is useful on a game farm as the leaves are browsed by eland, kudu, nyala, bushbuck and grey duiker. The wood is hard and is used for spear shafts and to start a fire.The roots are non aggressive so you can plant it 2 meters from a building or a pool.

Kniphofia praecox

(Red-Hot Poker)

This is a must for a stunning winter garden. It is an evergreen groundcover which is frost resistant and fast growing. Plant a clump of them in the sun, in a moist area or a wetland. The orange-yellow flowers make a stunning display in winter and attract birds and butterflies. It is suitable for small gardens and the flowers are long lasting in the vase. Named for Johannes Hieronymus Kniphof ( 1704-1763) a German physician, lecturer, professor of medicine, then dean and rector till his death.

Kniphofia uvaria

(Marsh Poker)

An evergreen groundcover that grows about 1.5m x 1.5m. It is a very fast growing plant when planted in full sun and in a wetland area. The lovely orange/yellow flowers open in Summer. It is similar to Kniphofia linearifolia with a roundish inflorescence. The word uvaria means 'with rounded parts like a bunch of grapes'.The flowers last well in a vase and it is hppiest in a masrhy area.It attracts butterflies and birds. Named for Johannes Hieronymus Kniphof ( 1704-1763) a German physician, lecturer, professor of medicine, then dean and rector till his death.

Lampranthus sp

(Vygies)

A valuable addition to any garden as their iridescent flowers are seen in spring and summer. Their striking colours are a highlight after the drab winter garden when only the Aloes are in flower. They are all drought resistant and creep along the ground creating a carpet of striking colour. They attract butterflies and are useful in rockeries, along a path or in a hanging basket. They are frost resistant and fast growing. The leaves vary from dull ,dusty green to a bright, light green. The name is derived from the Greek lampros = bright, shining; anthos = flower; referring to the light reflecting off the glossy petals.

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