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Carissa macrocarpa

(Large Num-Num, noem-noem)

This small evergreen tree grows to about 4 meters and is water wise. It flourishes in the sun or semi-shade. Fragrant white flowers occur from spring to mid-summer and they attract insects, butterflies and insect eating birds. It is also used for nesting sites. This shrub is useful for formal pruned hedging, informal hedging/screening or thorny security barriers. It is suitable for containers and coastal gardens as it tolerates wind and salt spray. It is a low maintenance plant. The fruit is highly nutritious as it is rich in vitamin C, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. All the Carissa have edible fruit. It is eaten raw or cooked to produce a jam, chopped into salads, jelly or bredies. They produce pink dye. Macrocarpa means 'large fruit'. The root is used medicinally for coughs, a tonic or for VD. I stick is used in a hut to repel snakes and they are planted near the homestead for protection. In West Africa the roots are used to flavour stews and a piece of root and leaf is placed in water containers to keep it fresh. On the Highveld do plant it in a protected spot as they are frost tender when young.

Cassinopsis ilicifolia

(Lemon Thorn)

This small evergreen tree is water wise and will thrive in the sun or semi-shade. Little white flowers open in summer and they are followed by little yellow fruit that look like miniature lemons and they attract insect and fruit eating birds like bulbuls, starlings, barbets, pigeons, guineafowl and francolins. The tree is also used for nesting sites and the leaves are browsed. It can be utilized for informal hedging/screening or thorny security barriers. It is an ideal tree for small gardens and looks great near a pond. As it does not have aggressive roots it can be planted in a container, near a building or paving.If the leaves start to drop, this is an indication that it is water deprived. The name comes from the Greek opsis=resemblance as the genus resembles Cassine.

Euphorbia tirucalli

(Rubber Hedge)

The rubber-hedge euphorbia is a succulent plant which usually 3-5 m but may reach 10 m in warm climates. It grows moderately fast and thrives in moderate to warm climates. It does not cope with extreme cold or frost. It is used as a hedge and I saw a shopping centre in Nelspruit has used it as a permiter hedge with great success.It thrives in full sun. The leaves turn to various shades of yellow, orange and pink in the winter. It would look good in a rockery with Aloes and succulents or in a pot as a feature in a small garden. The name is derived from the Greek eu=well and phorbe=pasteur referring to the Greek physician Euphorbus.

Gardenia thunbergia

(Starry Gardenia)

This is an evergreen small tree, 2 to 5 m in height. It is slow-growing and does best in sun or semi-shade, in a slightly acid, light, well-drained soil with plenty of organic matter added and regular deep watering. Mulch thickly and regularly. Although it is moderately drought tolerant, drought stress can cause buds to fall before opening. It is half hardy and should tolerate a winter minimum of -1°C although young plants will require protection from frost. It looks good as a specimen plant on a lawn, as part of an informal hedge or shrubbery, or planted beNamed for Carl side a pond or a stream. It also makes a good pot plant in a large container as its pale grey bark and angular shape make it an interesting form plant, while the flowers perfume the air. The flowers are heavily scented at night and attract moths. It is also suitable for bonsai. We have used it as an alternative indigenous Christmas tree. The roots are used to treat skin diseases and fevers. Root bark infusions are used as an emetic against biliousness. The fruit are relished by elephants, buffalo and antelope. It also attracts birds and butterflies. It is slow growing and therefore the wood is hard. Named for Carl Pehr Thunberg (1743-1828) a Swedish botanist, physician, Professor of botany and medicine. He visited the Cape to study Dutch and the flora of the Cape (1772-1775) . He collected 3100 specimens in the Cape.and published Flora Capensis. He then went to Japan, Jarva and Sri Lanka for 15 months. He wrote about his travels and Flora Japonica. He presented his herbarium of 23,510 specimens and 25,000 insects to the University. He was made a knight of the Royal Order and received many honours.

Noltea africana

(Soap Dogwood)

This small evergreen tree is frost resistant and fast growing in the sun. The white flowers are produced in summer. It attracts birds and is used for nesting sites. It also attracts butterflies. It has been 'adopted' by the landscaping trade, perhaps for its versatility. It makes a great screen, -windbreak or informal hedge. The plant always has an occasional red leaf right throughout the year. The glossy green leaves are a treat in our dry, brown winters in Gauteng. Its common name comes from the fact that a soapy lather is made from the leaves. It is also used medicinally to treat Black Quarter in cattle. Named for Ernst Ferdinand Nolte (1791-1875), a German botanist and physician , professor of botany and director of botanical art at Kiel. He studied medicine in Germany and at Moscow.

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