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Acokanthera oppositifolia

(Bushmans Poison)

This small sized evergreen tree it is hardy, drought and frost resistant with non-aggressive roots. It tolerates full sun or shade and also does well as a container plant. The clusters of pink - white, sweetly scented flowers open in spring, followed by large plum coloured fruit like berries. The stems contain poisonous milky latex which was used as an arrow poison by the Bushmen. Although it is poisonous it is used medicinally to treat snake and spider bites and also for aches, toothache and colds. The leaves are used as a snuff for headaches, convulsions, stomach pain and septicaemia. Root decoctions are used toi treat anthrax and tapeworm. Its ideal for a small garden. This plant is toxic and must be approached with caution. Accidental deaths have occurred when children have eaten the flowers or the fruit. One of our Zulu staff said that they eat the fruit. Some have died when they used the branches as sosati sticks to cook their boerewors. It has also been used for murder whereby thorns are soaked in the sap and then left in the path of a barefoot victim. It attracts birds and butterflies. It is used medicinally as an infusion of root bark is used to treat excessive or irregular menstruation.The name is derived from the Greek ,'akris' which means sharp point and 'anthera' which means anthers referring to the sharp anthers within the flowers.

Apodytes dimidiata

(White Pear||Birds-Eye)

An evergreen small tree which has non-invasive roots and glossy, bright green leaves. This small, bushy tree is an excellent choice for a shade tree as it provides deep shade all year long. It would be good for screening. The small, white flowers are fragrant and they open in summer. They are pollinated by bees. The flowers are followed by attractive fruits which are favoured by Rameron pigeons, redwinged starlings, pied barbets and black-eyed bulbuls. The fallen fruit is eaten by thrush and guineafowl. It is frost sensitive initially so protect while it is still young. This tree is valued by the Zulu as it is said to ward off evil. It is medicinal as an infusion from the root bark is used as an enema for intestinal parasites and the leaves are used in the treatment of ear inflammation. It attracts butterflies. The leaves and bark are browsed by Black Rhino and the fruit is eaten by monkeys and game. The bark is often covered in orange or multicoloured lichen. It responds well to pruning and makes a lovely hedge.It is wind resistant and will do well in pots. The wood is used for furniture, flooring and rifle stocks. The leaves are boiled and used as a pot herb and eaten with porridge. More than enough reasons to plant this tree!

Asystasia bella was Mackaya bella

(Forest Bell Bush)

This small evergreen tree is water wise, fast growing in shade or semi-shade. The delicate mauve or white flowers occur in summer and they attract birds, carpenter bees and butterflies. The glossy dark green leaves help to create an informal screen. The wood is used to make fire by friction and it is an ideal tree for small gardens. It makes a stunning display if planted in a pot and can also serve for screening in a semi-shade area. Can be planted along a stream bank. The River Bell is a desirable garden plant as the roots are not aggressive and it is the larval host plant for the Blue Pansy butterfly. Named for James Townsend Mackay (1775-1862) Scottish horticulturist and curator of the Durban University's botanical garden fro 1804 until his death. He was a professor, active field botanist and author.Dublin university honoured him with a LLD and a PhD in 1850 for his service to botany.

Buddleja saligna

(False Olive)

This small evergreen tree is frost resistant, drought resistant, fast growing in the sun and is one of our most versatile trees. It has fragrant white flowers in spring which attract birds, bees and butterflies. It is great for formal pruned hedges as it responds well to pruning or for informal hedging/screening. It has non-aggressive roots which makes it most attractive for small gardens, containers and bonsai. Plant 3 meters from buildings. It is medicinal as the leaves are used for coughs and colds and the roots are used as a purgative. The wood is used for fencing posts, small furniture and fire wood. The photo of the tree with a spiral stem was purposefully grown like that and trained over wire as a sapling. Named for Adam Buddle 1660-1715 an English amateur botanist, vicar and plant collector. He created Britain's first herbarium.

Carissa macrocarpa

(Large Num-Num)

This small evergreen tree grows to about 4 meters and is water wise. It flourishes in the sun or semi-shade. Fragrant white flowers occur from spring to mid-summer and they attract insects, butterflies and insect eating birds. It is also used for nesting sites. This shrub is useful for formal pruned hedging, informal hedging/screening or thorny security barriers. It is suitable for containers and coastal gardens as it tolerates wind and salt spray. It is a low maintenance plant. The fruit is highly nutritious as it is rich in vitamin C, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. All the Carissa have edible fruit. It is eaten raw or cooked to produce a jam, chopped into salads, jelly or bredies. They produce pink dye. Macrocarpa means 'large fruit'. The root is used medicinally for coughs, a tonic or for VD. I stick is used in a hut to repel snakes and they are planted near the homestead for protection. In West Africa the roots are used to flavour stews and a piece of root and leaf is placed in water containers to keep it fresh. On the Highveld do plant it in a protected spot as they are frost tender when young.

Cassinopsis ilicifolia

(Lemon Thorn)

This small evergreen tree is water wise and will thrive in the sun or semi-shade. Little white flowers open in summer and they are followed by little yellow fruit that look like miniature lemons and they attract insect and fruit eating birds like bulbuls, starlings, barbets, pigeons, guineafowl and francolins. The tree is also used for nesting sites and the leaves are browsed. It can be utilized for informal hedging/screening or thorny security barriers. It is an ideal tree for small gardens and looks great near a pond. As it does not have aggressive roots it can be planted in a container, near a building or paving.If the leaves start to drop, this is an indication that it is water deprived. The name comes from the Greek opsis=resemblance as the genus resembles Cassine.

Coddia rudis

(Small Bone-Apple)

Coddia are named for Leslie Edward Wastwell Codd (1908-1999) a South African botanist and agriculturist. He was highly educated and wrote 2 Botanica books and 160 publications. The main stem of Coddia rudis is usually short and multi-stemmed with arching branches. The bark is pale grey and contrasts beautifully against the green leaves. It produces white flowers in summer, followed by small fruits. It forms a compact shrub when browsed by game. The small, shiny leaves are borne in clusters or on opposite sides of the stems. This shrub is best used in an informal garden, a wild garden or an exclusion zone. Plant it in full sun and it is an excellent plant for a container and bonsai. Suitable for small garden. The fruit is eaten by people and birds and the leaves are heavily browsed by game. Named for Leslie Edward Wastell Codd 1908-1999.

Diospyros whyteana

(Bladder-Nut)

This small evergreen tree is water wise and prefers a semi-shade position. The white/yellow flowers open in winter and they attract birds and butterflies. It is useful for a formal pruned hedge or informal hedging/screening. It does well in a container or as a bonsai. Browsed by stock and kudu, nyala, klipspringer and greysbok. The fruit is beautidul and distinctive as it fades from green to reddish brown. The seeds are roasted and used as a substitute for coffee. The leaves and roots are used medicinally to treat a rash. The wood is hard and is used for furniture. This is my personal choice for a small garden as it has lovely autumn foliage, glossy green leaves, non aggressive roots and a neat growth habit. You can plant it 2 meters from a building or a pool. It is the larval host for butterflies.

Duvernoia now called Justicia adhatodoides

(Pistol Bush)

A lovely, small evergreen tree which is water wise and thrives in the shade or semi-shade. The stunning white flowers are streaked with purple and look like an orchid at first glance. They occur in abundance in autumn-summer and are long lasting. It is useful for a pruned hedge or an informal hedge/screen. The seed pods crack open noisily Named for Johan Georg Duvernoy (1692-1759) a German botanist and surgeon.and the seed is dispersed and that gives rise to the common name. The flowers are pollinated by carpenter bees and the wood is hard.

Freylinia tropica

(Blue Honeybell Bush)

This low maintenance, highly versatile shrub always delivers. It is frost hardy and even survives a black frost. Water wise, evergreen, fast growing and accommodating as it does well in the full sun or semi shade. They are perfect for planting in the sun under newly planted trees that will grow and provide semi shade when they are fully grown. A wonderful choice for a wildlife friendly garden as they attract birds, insects and butterflies like the Brown Veined White and Eyed Pansy. It flowers blue or white all year and is therefore perfect for pots. A perfect choice for a townhouse garden as it doesn't get too big but does well as a screen to hide the neighbours. It responds well to pruning and forms a neat formal hedge which naturally grows to about 1.5 meters. You can happily cut it much shorter if you’d like a short hedge to edge your garden bed or demarcate an area. It grows naturally in high altitude, misty forest margins and river banks of the Waterberg and Limpopo mountains where it is a pioneer specie. Although it is Red Listed as rare it is not threatened.

Galpinia transvaalica

(Transvaal Privet)

An evergreen tree that grows to 6 m in height and is multi-stemmed. The stems are often crooked and the branches lie low. The bark is smooth and pale when young, but it has a rough appearance and cracks into blocks when the tree is older. The flowers are white and are borne in dense sprays at the end of the branches in summer. They attract insects, which then attract the insect eating birds. The fruit is a small, round capsule and is 3-4 mm wide. It forms compact clusters that are reddish brown to black and is covered with a hard rind, which splits open to release winged seeds. Fruit appears from April to July. It has non aggressive roots so it can be planted 2 meters from a wall or building. It is also an ideal plant for hedging/screening. It is suitable for game farms as it is browsed by antelope, giraffe and elephant. It is sensitive to frost. Suitable as a hedge, for containers and bonsai. It attracts birds and butterflies

Gardenia cornuta

(Natal Gardenia)

An evergreen, multi-branched small tree 3 to 5 meters tall, with erect and spreading main branches. The branchlets sometimes have thick thorns. The bark is smooth, often flaking into thin peels. Leaves are smooth, glossy green and crowded at the ends of twigs, usually in whorls of three. These are browsed by game. The fragrant flowers are solitary at the ends of short, rigid branches and are borne from November to March. They are white turning yellow, short-stalked, with a long, slender greenish tube and spreading white lobes. Fruits are more or less pear-shaped, woody, tipped with persistent remains of the calyx, glossy golden yellow, usually produced in large quantities between February and August. Seeds are hard and flattened. The fruit is relished by nyala, monkeys and baboons. It should be planted in sun or semi-shade. It is useful for hedging/screening and it is ideal for containers. In traditional medicine, the fruit and roots are boiled and used as an emetic. Poles are used for fencing, for fuel.and for chasing away evil spirits. It attracts birds and butterflies. It is frost sensitive. Named after Alexander Garden (1730-1791) a Scottish doctor, botanist and zoologist who lived in the USA. He studied plants and sent birds, fish, reptiles and plants to Linnaeus in England. He returned to the UK and was a Fellow of the Royal Society in London and founded The Royal Society of Edinburgh.

Gardenia thunbergia

(Starry Gardenia)

This is an evergreen small tree, 2 to 5 m in height. It is slow-growing and does best in sun or semi-shade, in a slightly acid, light, well-drained soil with plenty of organic matter added and regular deep watering. Mulch thickly and regularly. Although it is moderately drought tolerant, drought stress can cause buds to fall before opening. It is half hardy and should tolerate a winter minimum of -1°C although young plants will require protection from frost. It looks good as a specimen plant on a lawn, as part of an informal hedge or shrubbery, or planted beNamed for Carl side a pond or a stream. It also makes a good pot plant in a large container as its pale grey bark and angular shape make it an interesting form plant, while the flowers perfume the air. The flowers are heavily scented at night and attract moths. It is also suitable for bonsai. We have used it as an alternative indigenous Christmas tree. The roots are used to treat skin diseases and fevers. Root bark infusions are used as an emetic against biliousness. The fruit are relished by elephants, buffalo and antelope. It also attracts birds and butterflies. It is slow growing and therefore the wood is hard. Named for Carl Pehr Thunberg (1743-1828) a Swedish botanist, physician, Professor of botany and medicine. He visited the Cape to study Dutch and the flora of the Cape (1772-1775) . He collected 3100 specimens in the Cape.and published Flora Capensis. He then went to Japan, Jarva and Sri Lanka for 15 months. He wrote about his travels and Flora Japonica. He presented his herbarium of 23,510 specimens and 25,000 insects to the University. He was made a knight of the Royal Order and received many honours.

Kraussia floribunda

(Kraussia)

This is a pleasing garden shrub with faintly scented, attractive clusters of pretty white flowers in midsummer. These are followed in winter by black berries. The growth habit is usually upright and can be either single or multi-stemmed at a height of 2- 4 m. Its stem is smooth and a grayish brown. This attractive shrub will grow happily in semi shade or full sun. It is suitable for a pot or container on a patio. It makes a lovely show of flowers, berries and glossy green leaves but will also look good used in a screen or informal garden bed. The flowers are attractive to many insect pollinators and the edible fruit has a sweet taste and is enjoyed by humans monkeys and baboons. This could explain the widespread distribution of this species from dispersal by small mammals, birds and monkeys. A very good choice for a wildlife garden or on a game farm as the leaves are eaten by Black Rhino and game. Named for Christian Ferdinand Friedrich von Krauss (1812-90) He had a phD in mineralogy, zoology and chemistry. He sailed to the Cape where he collected molluscs crustaceans, flora and fauna. He explored the area between Cape Town and Port Elizabeth and later Pietermaritzburg. He then joined the Natural History museum in Stuttgart where he was the director. Floribunda means 'with an abundance of flowers'.

Plumbago auriculata alba

(Plumbago)

This medium size evergreen shrub has a tendency to scramble. It has small delicate, pale green leaves and produces masses of white phlox-like flowers throughout summer. This fast growing, fairly drought resistant shrub may also be planted against a fence to form a screen or in an informal border where it can be kept neatly pruned. This attractive plant does particularly well in frost free areas but if damaged by frost it will recover rapidly in spring. The roots are used as traditional remedies to relieve headaches, treat fractures, wounds and remove warts. It is also said to confuse enemies, ward off evil and prevent lightning.It is an ideal plant for containers. Butterflies and sunbirds are constant visitors.

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