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Galpinia transvaalica

(Transvaal Privet)

An evergreen tree that grows to 6 m in height and is multi-stemmed. The stems are often crooked and the branches lie low. The bark is smooth and pale when young, but it has a rough appearance and cracks into blocks when the tree is older. The flowers are white and are borne in dense sprays at the end of the branches in summer. They attract insects, which then attract the insect eating birds. The fruit is a small, round capsule and is 3-4 mm wide. It forms compact clusters that are reddish brown to black and is covered with a hard rind, which splits open to release winged seeds. Fruit appears from April to July. It has non aggressive roots so it can be planted 2 meters from a wall or building. It is also an ideal plant for hedging/screening. It is suitable for game farms as it is browsed by antelope, giraffe and elephant. It is sensitive to frost. Suitable as a hedge, for containers and bonsai. It attracts birds and butterflies

Heteropyxis natalensis

(Lavender Tree)

This small, evergreen tree is water wise and is happy in the sun or semi shade. In summer the white/creamy flowers attract bees, wasps, butterflies and insects which attract the insect eating birds. It is also a useful tree for nesting. This tree is suitable for containers and bonsai as it has non aggressive roots. Plant it 3 meters from a building or a pool. It is used medicinally as an antibacterial and the bark is considered to be an aphrodisiac.The leaves and roots of this plant are used medicinally to treat worms in stock and tick infestions, for toothache, mouth and gum infections. African healers prescribe inhaling the steam from a decoction of the roots to heal a bleeding nose and clear a blocked nose. The roots are also used in the treatment of mental disorders and fresh leaves are used during weaning, to make a herbal tea and for potpourri . A tea is made from the leaves and used to treat heartburn, colic, colds and flatulence. This tea is said to be strengthening and is given to the elderly, travellers and new mothers. The leaves are also used to scent tobacco as they smell like lavender as well as being browsed by antelope. Leaves and twigs are boiled in water to make a fragrant wash. Crushed leaves are added to mutton fat which then treats cracked heels and tired feet. The leaves are put into the bath for a fragrant and invigorating bath and are used in Potpourri. The bark and the leaves are eaten by black rhino. It is a very decorative tree for small gardens. With its glossy green leaves and a whitish stem, it makes a very good focal point. Plant this tree in a prominent spot where you can enjoy its lovely autumn foliage. The small fruit ripens in autumn and winter. The name is derived from the Greek heteros = different : pyxis = a jar with a lid , referring to the fruit capsule which looks like it has a lid on it.

Ilex mitis

(Cape Holly)

This is a medium sized evergreen tree with a straight trunk, attractive bark and a rounded canopy which is fast growing in the sun and frost hardy. Do protect young trees for the first few years. The twigs and leaf stalks are reddish in colour. Sweetly scented, white flowers occur in spring or early summer. They are followed by fruit which ripen on the female trees in autumn, turning bright red, are densely packed along the stems. They provide bright splashes of colour, attracting many kinds of birds, like louries, doves, pigeons, bulbuls, starlings and barbets. It is a useful tree which attracts butterflies and can be used near wetlands. It is also medicinal as the bark is chewed as a purgative. Elephants eat the leaves. The leaves create a lather when rubbed together. The wood was used to make wagons, furniture, fuel and the heels of ladies high heeled shoes. Roots are non aggressive so plant it 3 meters from a building or a pool.

Kraussia floribunda

(Kraussia)

This is a pleasing garden shrub with faintly scented, attractive clusters of pretty white flowers in midsummer. These are followed in winter by black berries. The growth habit is usually upright and can be either single or multi-stemmed at a height of 2- 4 m. Its stem is smooth and a grayish brown. This attractive shrub will grow happily in semi shade or full sun. It is suitable for a pot or container on a patio. It makes a lovely show of flowers, berries and glossy green leaves but will also look good used in a screen or informal garden bed. The flowers are attractive to many insect pollinators and the edible fruit has a sweet taste and is enjoyed by humans monkeys and baboons. This could explain the widespread distribution of this species from dispersal by small mammals, birds and monkeys. A very good choice for a wildlife garden or on a game farm as the leaves are eaten by Black Rhino and game. Named for Christian Ferdinand Friedrich von Krauss (1812-90) He had a phD in mineralogy, zoology and chemistry. He sailed to the Cape where he collected molluscs crustaceans, flora and fauna. He explored the area between Cape Town and Port Elizabeth and later Pietermaritzburg. He then joined the Natural History museum in Stuttgart where he was the director. Floribunda means 'with an abundance of flowers'.

Nuxia floribunda

(Forest Elder)

This small to medium-sized evergreen tree is usually 3 m to 10 m tall. The main stem is often somewhat contorted and up to 600 mm in diameter. The fissured bark is rough and flaking and is grey to brown in colour. A lovely dense and rounded crown is often evident, contributing greatly to the visual appeal of the species. The leaves are browsed by kudu, bushbuck, nyala, klipspringer and duiker. The sweetly scented, cream-white flowers are small and they attract insects which attract the insect eating birds. They are rich in nectar which makes them idea for honey farmers. It flowers from autumn to spring. It is an attractive, moisture-loving tree that is frost sensitive. It likes a sunny to partly-shady position in the garden. Its root system is not aggressive or invasive, allowing for planting in close proximity, 3 meters, to roads, buildings and paving. It attracts birds and butterflies. The wood is hard and is used for furniture. Named for Jean Baptiste Francois de la Nux. (1702-1772) a French amateur naturalist. He became chief clerk and later the commander of Saint - Denis, the administrative of Reunion Island where he tried to develop silkworm farming. Floribunda means 'with an abundance of flowers'.

Podocarpus falcatus now Afrocarpus falcatus

(Outeniqua or Common Yellowwood, Kalander)

An attractive evergreen tree that grows to 15m x 12m. It is a protected tree in South Africa. It is frost hardy, wind resistant and requires water as it naturally occurs on misty mountain slopes with high humidity. In 1976 it was listed as SA National Tree and one needs a permit to fell these trees. It is often used as a Christmas tree. Although it has the smallest leaves of all the Podocarpus species, it grows to be the tallest. This is the famous 'Big Tree' of the Knysna Forest. It is slow growing at first but once established grows fast. It looks impressive lining a driveway as an avenue and it can be used as a windbreak or screen on a farm or as a container plant on a patio. The fruit are eaten by bats, birds, monkeys and bush pigs. The bark is burnt in a kraal to prevent the cattle from straying. It is an important nesting and food for the endangered Cape Parrot, and is visited by Louries and Pigeons. The fine grained wood is used for ceilings, floors, doors, boats and furniture. The ripe fruit is edible and the sap is used medicinally for chest complaints. Plant it about 5 meters from a building and a pool. This is a popular bonsai subject. The name is derived from the Greek podos = foot and karpos - fruit, referring to the fleshy foot , the receptacle, on which the fruit develops.

Rothmannia capensis

(Cape Gardenia)

This evergreen, medium tree grows up to 10 m tall in woodlands but reaches 20 m in forests. It has a dense roundish crown. The bark on younger branches is smooth and grey-brown, but darker grey, rough and cracked like crocodile skin on older branches. The glossy green leaves are often crowded towards the ends of the branches and have little bumps. The beautiful bell-shaped flowers are borne singly in summer. They are creamy white with purplish red streaks and speckled inside the flower tube. They have a strong sweet scent, which lingers even after they dry. They are followed by round, hard, green fruits with leathery skin and marked with faint grooves. The fruits soften when ripe and turn brown. They contain many flat seeds embedded in pulp. The fruit is enjoyed by baboon, monkeys bushbuck, grey duiker and bushpig.. This beautiful tree is suitable for a small garden as it has non aggressive roots. It grows very well in light shade or full sun, preferring loam or sandy soils to clay. It grows moderately fast (0.7 m per year) and may flower in its second year, but most take a little longer. Do protect young trees from frost. It attracts birds and butterflies. It is used medicinally to treat wounds, leprosy, burns and rheumatism. The wood is hard and strong and is used hut building, fuel and tools. For Joran(George) Johansson Rothman (1739-1778) a Swedish botanist, physian and translator.

Rothmannia globosa

(September Bells)

This little know or utilized tree has been grown in Europe for more than a century. This slender tree, usually 4-7 m in height, can reach 12 m, depending on the climatic conditions. The bark is brown or dark grey, smooth when young, but rougher in old age and marked in rectangular segments. The shiny, simple leaves are oval or lanceolate with a paler underside which displays the yellow or reddish midrib and veins. Trees are usually evergreen, but may be briefly deciduous. The scented, bell-shaped flowers are creamy white, usually with pink speckles in the throat. The flowers are almost stalkless and appear from August to November. The trees are often in full bloom in September hence the common name. The fruits are round green when young but turn brown as they ripen from January onwards. The powdered roots are rubbed into incisions in some parts of southern Africa to treat leprosy. It is fairly fast growing and tolerates some frost but protect young trees in winter. It makes a beautiful small tree for townhouse gardens and as it has non aggressive roots, it is suitable for containers. Monkeys, baboons, nyala and birds eat the fruit and it also attracts bees and butterflies.

Stapelia gigantea

(Carrion Flower)

A low, perennial succulent. The stems are almost always erect and are uniformly green to reddish, depending on the extent of exposure to the sun. The flower is white or pinkish, star shaped and opens in summer. The common name refers to the smell which attracts flies. This is a succulent so it only requires moderately watering. Plant it in semi shade near rocks for interest. It is a medicinal plant as stem infusions are used to treat hysteria. Ash from a burnt plant is rubbed into scarification's on the body for pain relief. It is also used in sorcery and as a protective charm. It is the host plant for the African monarch butterfly. Named for Johannes van Stapel ( 1602-1636) a Dutch physician and botanist. He received a medical degree from Leiden University in 1625 and then studied botany. His life's ambition was to publish a botanical work but he died before this was completed. His father went on to complete the work for him.One of the plants in his book is the Stapelia variegata, named by Linnaeus in 1753 which Johannes saw in the Cape in 1624. It has now been renamed Orbea variegata. This is a protected plant in South Africa.

Zanthoxylum capense

(Small Knobwood)

Occurs in the Transvaal, Swaziland and Natal. This small, mutistemmed tree grows to about 5 m in the sun or semi shade in the dry woodlands on rocky slopes. It’ s a protected tree in South Africa with glossy green leaves that have a strong citrus smell when crushed, the thorns are straight and brown and fade to grey on cone shaped protuberance when old. The flowers are white/green and are sweetly scented. They attract insects and insect eating birds. It is both drought and frost hardy. The citrus swallowtail larvae, White-banded Swallowtail, Green-banded Swallowtail and the Emperor Swallowtail feed off the leaves while the fruit is eaten by birds, monkeys and baboons. The leaves are browsed by kudu, klipspringer and grey duiker. The fruit is chewed for stomach aches, colic, flatulence, cramps and pain. Crushed leaves are made into a tea which is drunk for stomach upsets, diarrhoea, cramps and intestinal worms. The crushed leaves of Artemesia afra and the Knobwood were used during the 1918 Flu epidemic and made into a strong tea. It is used for colds, flu, coughs and a gargle.The bark is used for snake bite and gall-sickness in cattle and the twigs are used as toothbrushes. The crushed seeds are used as perfume. Pounded bark is made into a tea and drunk for blood conditions and also applied to skin eruptions, snake bite and toothache. The wood is yellow and is used for implements and walking sticks which are considered to be a protective charm. The leaves can be left in oil in a warm place for 4 days. This is used to massage tired feet. The pungent leaves can be added to pot-pourri or used with Artemesia leaves to make an insect-repellant pot-pourri. Itt is useful for containers as it has non aggressive roots.

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