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Vachellia xanthophloea (Acacia xanthophloea)

(Fever Tree)

This large sized deciduous tree is fast growing in the sun or semi-shade .It also grows well in a swampy, low lying areas and clay soils. It was originally thought that the tree caused malaria, hence it's common name. It was the swampy conditions that caused the malaria. The fragrant yellow flowers open in Spring and smell like vanilla which attracts insects and insectivorous birds. There is also a white flowering form. First hand experience shows that it has an aggressive roots system, although some books claim that they are non aggressive. Plant it 6 meters from a building or a pool. The beautiful yellow bark makes it distinctive and highly sought after, but be aware that they are frost tender when young. It is a useful tree as it has medicinal bark, edible gum and the timber is used for boxwood, furniture and carving as it is hard and heavy. Elephants eat the young branches and giraffe, monkeys and baboon eat the leaves, flowers and the pods. Weavers like to build their nests in these trees, probably because the thorns help to protect them. The bark is used as a good luck charm and it is used medicinally, mixed with dried roots to treat malaria and to treat fevers and eye complaints and the bark is rolled into small balls and chewed for a cough and sore throat. Branches are used to protect fields from hippo. This is a popular bonsai subject. Unfortunately this fungal disease is rather common on Fever Trees. The fungus has been identified as a rust, similar to Uromyces. The suggestion is to totally spray the trunks with triazole type fungicides. (Defender or Bumper 30 ml per 100 L water) Probably the most popular treatment is a total drench with Trichotec --- Trichoderma spp. A living fungi that is antagonistic to many other pathogenic fungi. After the drench it is essential to cover as much of the treated trunk with newspaper to shield the Trichoderma from ultra violet light for a few weeks. Preventatively - be careful as weed-eater damage can initiate an infection. If this is not successful, call an arborist for their opinion and treatment. Named for Rev George Harvey Vachel (1798-1839) a British priest and plant collector. He was chaplain to the British East India company in China where he collected plants. Rudyard Kipling's story 'The Elephant's child' immortalised the specie with 'The banks of the great grey-green, greasy Limpopo River, all set about with Fever Trees'.

Berchemia zeheri

(Red Ivory)

This evergreen to semi-deciduous tree is drought resistant but not frost resistant. Flowers are yellowish or greenish white, star-like in clusters on stalks 10 mm long. The flowers appear between September and December and are followed by sweet, yellow to brownish red fruit from January to April. The flowers are sweetly scented and attract various insects and bees. These attract the insect eating birds.The fruits are edible and are enjoyed by people, birds and animals. Plant it in the sun.The beautiful red wood is utilized. It is a medicinal plant and is is used as strong muthi against evil spirits. The leaves are browsed by game. The beautiful wood is used for ornaments, furniture and fence posts. Named for Jacob Peter Berthout van Berchem ( 1763-1832)

Celtis africana

(White Stinkwood)

This medium deciduous tree, is frost resistant, drought resistant and fast growing in sun or semi-shade. if well watered it will grow 2 meters a year. It occurs from the Cape Peninsula to Ethiopia. Tiny yellow, sweetly scented flowers occur in summer and they attract insect and fruit eating birds. The fruit is also eaten by monkeys and baboon. The tree is also browsed by game like kudu, nyala, bushbuck, impala and grey duiker. It is also used for nesting sites and a tall perch from which to lookout. Butterflies like the African Snout, Blue-spotted Emperor and the Foxy Emperor as well as several moths are also attracted to this fodder tree. It is a popular bonsai subject and the wood is used for furniture, construction, flooring, mine props, toys, ladders, boxes and crates. It is also used for firewood as well as charcoal production.It can be planted in a container. The common name is as a result of the unpleasant smell when the wood is first cut. It is magical as is used to protect against lightening by mixing the wood shavings with crocodile fat. The medicinal uses are numerous, treating a fever, headache, sore eyes and pleurisy. The bark is made into rope. It is always found where there is underground water or streams. Plant it 6 meters from buildings or pools. This is a protected tree in South Africa.

Clausena anisata

(Horsewood)

A deciduous, small, neat and attractive tree. It is often maligned, as the crushed leaves give off a strong, aniseed-like scent which is considered by many to be unpleasant. In some plants the smell is pleasant but in others it's Afrikaans common name ‘Perdepis’, meaning 'horse urine' is most descriptive. The ripening fruits which turn from red to black are much loved by birds and are very attractive. It produces yellow flowers in spring and they attract insects which in turn attracts the insect eating birds. This tree deserves a spot in any garden but don't crush the leaves if you find the scent objectionable. It has non-aggressive roots system and the leaves are used to flavour curry.It is medicinal and is used for internal parasites, fevers and heart ailments. The leaves are burnt as a mosquito repellent and sticks are used as toothbrushes. The leaves are used to make a tea to strengthen the blood and it has a host of medicinal and magical uses. The wood is used for sticks and hut building. Steam for the twigs and leaves is used to strengthen Xhosa babies. This is the larval host to two moth species and the Citrus, Constantine, Emperor, Green-banded, Mocker and White-banded Swallowtail butterflies.Named for Peder Claussen Friis ( 1545-1614) who was a Norwegian parish priest and a naturilist. He had a great interest in geography, history and ancient languages and wrote prolifically.

Combretum erythrophyllum

(River Bushwillow)

This is a medium to large deciduous tree with reddish autumn colours. Flowers are cream to pale yellow, slightly scented and open in September to November. The fruit are small, 4-winged and a greenish brown colour, ripening to yellowish brown and drying to a honey-brown. They stay on the tree for a long time. The fruit is poisonous and results in hiccups. A popular shade tree, surprisingly drought and frost resistant and fast growing, reaching 4-6 m in three years. The gum has interesting antibiotic properties and is applied to sores. It is non-toxic, elastic, producing a non-cracking varnish. Ornaments, cattle troughs and grain mortars are made from the wood, which is yellow, tough and easily worked. It is also used as fire wood. A dark, rich brown dye is extracted from the roots which is used when tanning hides. The dried fruits also work well in flower arrangements and are eaten by pied barbets. It has non-aggressive roots and attracts birds. It is the larval host plant for several butterflies like Liordes Hairtail, Red -tab Policeman, Two-pip Policeman and the Orange-barred Playboy. I just love these charming butterfly names! It is an ideal tree for wetlands as well as game farms as it is browsed by Kudu, Bushbuck, Eland, Giraffe and Elephant. It is often used as a street tree, in large gardens and along rivers. There are many medicinal uses. Root bark and stem bark are used to treat a cough, infertility, leprosy and VD. The bark is taken during labour to ease childbirth, to treat infertility and as an aphrodisiac. The leaves are used for coughs and abdominal pains.The roots, which some regard as poisonous are used as a purgative, to treat venereal diseases and as a prophylactic for V.D. The roots are fed to dogs by the Zulu to fatten them up.

Combretum molle

(Velvet Bushwillow)

Velvet bush willow is a small to medium-sized deciduous tree that grows to 13 meters with a rounded crown. It has grey bark when young and this becomes grey-brown or almost black when older. Young leaves are attractive with a light pink or orange colour. Its flowering time is Sept.–Nov. The flowers are in dense axillary spikes with a greenish yellow colour, strongly scented and attractive to bees and other insects. The fruit is light green with reddish shade which turns red-brown when dry. Dried fruit is used in flower arrangements. It is used medicinally as the boiled root decoction is used for abortions, and to treat constipation, infertility, diarrhea, bleeding after childbirth, convulsions, fattening infants, backache and for difficulty walking which is caused by sorcery, headaches, stomach aches, fever, dysentery and swellings, and as an anthelmintic for hookworm. The leaves are chewed, soaked in water and the juice drunk for chest complaints. They are also boiled and used as a hot compress for wounds and snake bites. It can also be used as an inhalant in a hot steam bath to treat headaches. It is termite-proof and can be used to make fence posts, implement handles and bowls for grinding peanuts and mealies and mortars. Red fabric dyes are made from the leaves, whereas dyes made from the roots are yellow-brown. It is browsed by game. It is the larval host plant for the Guineafowl and Morant's Skipper butterflies. Canaries strip the bark for nesting. A very useful tree.

Cyphostemma lanigerum

(Wildedruif)

This deciduous shrub/scrambler grows to 2m tall. As it is deciduous it is frost resistant. It is also drought resistant and grows in the semi-shade. The yellow flowers open in Spring and the bright orange berries attract birds. It occurs naturally on the Highveld and is a worthwhile addition to a bird garden. It is medicinal as the roots are rubbed on the gum to aid toothache. The name is derived from Greek 'kyphos' = bent referring to the angle of the leaves.

Eucomis autumnalis

(Pineapple Flower)

An apt name for this deciduous groundcover, as the flower looks just like a pineapple, which are yellow/green in colour and open in summer. They attract birds and butterflies. It is a good cut flower for the vase as it’s long lasting and most unusual. It is frost resistant, water wise and fast growing in the sun, shade or semi-shade. Hangovers are cured by making a brew from the bulb. It is also used for kidney and bladder ailments. The leaves are used as a poultice for boils and skin problems and they are also used to treat a fever. Cattle are treated for gall sickness. A brew is used as an enema for a protective charm or the bulb is mixed with animal fat and this is rubbed into the body to protect one from illness and evil. The name is derived from the Greek eukomes=beautifully haired, eu=well and kome=hair of the head referring to the crown of leaves at the top of the flower.

Faidherbia albida ( Acacia albida)

(Ana Boom)

This is one of the fastest growing indigenous trees and is also one of our protected trees. It is deciduous and can grow up to 30 m tall. The young stems are greenish, grey colour. The straight, whitish thorns, grow in pairs, are up to 40 mm long. The scented, pale cream-coloured flowers are a spike shape. They open from March to September, followed by fruit from September to December. The fruit is orange to red-brown in colour and curved into a twisted pod. It is called the 'Apple-ring-thorn-tree' because of the shape of the seed pods. The seeds are mostly eaten by Brown Playboy butterfly larvae. The pods are browsed as they are high in protein and carbohydrate.They are dried and ground into edible flour. The leaves are browsed by elephant, giraffe, kudu, nyala, impala and domestic animals. The seeds are boiled and eaten.The Ana tree can also be used medicinally as a decoction of the bark is used to treat diarrhea, bleeding and inflamed eyes.The roots are used as a love charm emetic and the leaves are eaten for abdominal disorders. This relatively drought-resistant tree makes an interesting specimen if planted in a park. It has aggressive roots, so plant it 7 meters from a building or a garden wall. It can survive occasional frost (up to 5 days per year). It is used as a thorny security barrier and it also good for containers. The bark strips are used as dental floss, medicine and fish poison. It attracts insect eating birds and butterflies. The wood is used for fuel. They are used in eroded areas to stabilize the soil. This is another of our protected trees in South Africa. named for Louis Leon Cesar Faidherbe (1818-1889) the French General and Governor of Senegal. He was decorated with the Grand Cross. In Egypt he studies monuments and inscriptions. He was a geographer and an archaeologist who wrote extensively.

Gloriosa superba

(Flame Lily)

It is a deciduous, striking, tuberous, climbing plant with brilliant wavy-edge yellow and red flowers that open in summer. It needs to be watered well in summer however water should be withheld once the foliage begins to turn yellow. The tubers are prone to rot under moist conditions during the winter months as it is dormant in winter. The flowers are long lasting in a short vase. Although it is a poisonous plant with the roots being the most poisonous, it is a medicinal plant. Root sap is used for tooth ache. An infusion of the root is used to treeat intestinal worms. The leaves are used to treat skin problems, sprains and bruises. The paste of the corm is fried in butter and put on gout and arthritis. The root sap is also used to treat bruises, sprains, hemorrhoids, gonorrhea, impotence, infertility, toothache, worms, snake bite, dog poisoning and its used as an aphrodisiac. Despite it being poisonous, porcupines eat the roots. The seed heads are pretty and the seed is threaded into necklaces which are worn for protection and strength. The root is used to kill dogs and a snake deterrent. It is Zimbabwe's national flower. The name is derived from the Latin gloriosus=glorious referring to the colours and shape of the flowers.

Heteromorpha trifoliata

(Parsley Tree)

This small (3-7 m) deciduous tree is frost resistant and grows in the sun. In summer the yellow/green flowers attract insect eating birds. The trees are also used for nesting sites and they attract butterflies. The bark is very beautiful as it’s a shiny copper colour which splits and curls back on itself. The new bark looks like satin. There are two splendid examples on the main path at Walter Sisulu Botanical Garden. The crushed leaves smell like parsley hence the common name. They are variable in both size, shape and colour as they vary from light green to grey. The flowers are small and form a powder puff shape. They attract insects and butterflies. The winged fruit are creamy brown and appear in April. The leaves are browsed by game and Black Rhino. Roots and leaves are used in traditional medicine for a multitude of ailments. The leaves are used in an enema for abdominal, mental and nervous disorders as well as intestinal worms in children. The bark is used as a vermifuge for horses. The smoke of the bark is inhaled for headaches. It is also a protective charm against lightening and increases the power of the chief. The roots are used for shortness of breath, coughs, colic, blood, stomach and kidney purifier as well as weakness in men. The volatile oils indicate that is is anti baxcterial and anti fungal. It is also used as a sprinkling charm.

Kiggelaria africana

(Wild Peach)

This medium sized, well shaped and reasonably robust tree has smooth pale grey bark that becomes rough with age. It is found from the Cape Peninsula to Tanzania. The variable leaves of this evergreen tree may resemble those of the peach. The tiny, bell-shaped flowers which bloom from spring to summer, are yellow-green, with male and female flowers on separate trees. The hard, round, knobbly, greenish yellow capsule which forms in late summer to mid-winter splits to expose shiny black seeds, enclosed in an oily, sticky, bright orange-red coat. The birds like pigeons, doves, woodpeckers, louries, hornbills, robinss, shrikes, starlings. thrush, white - eyes and mousebirds can’t resist these seeds. This tree is said to attract lightning, but some people use it to protect their homes. It is frost hardy and drought resistant and it needs to be planted in full sun. The wood is used for furniture. It is a larval host for the Garden Acraea and the Battling Glider butterflies. This tree is always found where there is underground water or streams. The roots are not aggressive so plant it 4 meters from a building or a pool. Names for Francois Kiggelaer (1648-1722) a Dutch botanist, plant collector, traveller and curator of Simon van Beaumont's garden in The Hague.

Peltophorum africanum

(Weeping Wattle)

This specie occurs in Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Transvaal, Natal and Swaziland. An attractive, low branching, wide spreading shade tree with a fairly dense crown of olive-green feathery foliage. This deciduous tree grows to 9m x11m and is drought resistant. It requires full sun and moderate watering. It is a half hardy plant which must be protected from frost when it is young. Its has non aggressive roots so plant it 4 meters from a building or a pool. Grows fairy fast in fertile soil. The terminal sprays of bright yellow crinkly pea shaped flowers appear in summer and are visited by bees . The wood is used for fuel and for furniture. It attracts birds and butterflies. The spittle bug exudes a liquid and that gives rise to the common name of Weeping Wattle. The leaves and pods are browsed by game, elephant, kudu, giraffe and the bark is eaten by black rhino. The bark is also used medicinally for coughs, sore throats, fever and intestinal parasites, eye complaints and VD. A root decoction is used for infertility, backache and a purification rite for widows. The leaves are also used medicinally for toothache and in a wash to expel evil. It is the larval host plant for 6 moth species and the Common Scarlet, Satyr Emperor and the Van Son's Emperor butterflies. The name is derived from the Greek pelte = small shield ; phorum = carrier; referring to the shape of the stigma.

Rhoicissus tridentata

(Bushman's Grape)

A strong, branched climber with decorative, serrated, grass green leaves can be trained into a large shrub. The yellow/green flowers open in summer and attract sunbirds. They are followed by fleshy, red back fruits which are loved by birds and people. These are used medicinally in childbirth, for fertility, colds, stomach, kidney and bladder aliments. It is made into jam, jelly and vinegar It is ideal for pergolas or as a groundcover for large shady areas, a worthy indoor foliage pot plant if kept in trim. Water it regularly. It attracts birds and butterflies and is browsed by game and black rhino. The tubers are eaten by bushpigs, porcupine and baboon although they are said to be poisonous. The name is derived fro the Greek rhoia, = pomegranate; kissos=ivy. Most plants in this genus climb and have tendrils, but the reference to pomegranate is obscure.

Salix mucronata

(Safsaf Willow)

This graceful semi-deciduous to evergreen tree grows to 15m with an open crown and slightly drooping branches. Older trees have beautiful fissured, brown bark, while younger trees have smooth, green-red bark. The leaves are simple, alternate and taper to both ends. They are glossy, dark green above and light green below. The leaf margins are serrated. They are browsed by stock, hippo, nyala, kudu, grey duiker and bushbuck. The African leopard butterfly's larvae also feeds on the leaves. Flowers appear in short spikes with males and females on separate trees. The male spikes are dense, yellowish and can be up to 50mm in length. The greenish coloured female spikes are shorter and thicker. The flowing season is in summer. Monkeys eat the flowers. The fruit is a small capsule, which splits to release seeds covered with white fluff. Traditional uses include, applying bark powder to burns, and brewing tea from the leaves to treat rheumatism and malaria headaches and it is a mild laxative. This tea is also used as a skin lotion and to stimulate hair growth.It is also drunk as an appetizer. The Zulu tie the thin branches around their waist to treat abdominal and kidney pains and to give them strength.Young tree branches are used to make baskets, fire by friction and covered in a protective mixture to ward off storms and lightening. The wood is carved to make household, as well as decorative items. The tree can withstand both frost and drought. It is a water loving tree so plant it near a pond or dam but it may have aggressive roots. It will attract herons, darters and cormorants which will use the Salix for breeding. The name is derived from the Latin salia=willow, implying to spring or to leap. Willow branches are very flexible and when bent and released, they spring forward.

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