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Afrocanthium gilfillanii (was Canthium mundianum)

(Rock Alder)

An evergreen, small, sparsely branched tree with berries which attract birds, especially Loeries. The leaves are dark green and slightly hairy. Fragrant greenish flowers open in spring. It is excellent for small gardens especially where filtered light is desired. Prune out lower branches to form a tree. It is very adaptable and drought resistant, however it thrives if fed and watered regularly. The wood is used for fencing posts and tools. From the Malabar name canti for a specie of this genus 'Turkey- Berry" trees.

Aloe speciosa

(Tilt-Head or Spanish Aloe)

This is an evergreen shrub that grows from 3 to 6m in height and can take full sun. It is drought resistant, grows well in most areas, even where moderate frost occurs and is ideal for water-wise gardens .It also appears to be the most unaffected by aloe snout beetles due to its peculiar leaf sap chemistry.Its makes lovely pink flowers which are rich in nectar, attracting sunbirds, bees, butterflies and ants .The leaves also produce pink dye . The word Aloe comes from the Greek and refers to the bitter leaf gel. Speciosa refers to the 'handsome, showy, splendid flowers.

Aloe variegata

(Kanniedood)

This groundcover aloe grows to 25cm and is frost resistant and water wise as it occurs in the cold parts of the Karoo. It grows in the full sun and produces light to dark coral pink flowers in spring which attract birds. If planted in a pot, be sure not to over water it. It is used medicinally for curing sores on fingers. Porcupines dig them out of the ground in great numbers. According to old superstitions, if someone transplants one of these aloes and it dies, that person too will die. Mine died in the garden so I guess my days are numbered! The word Aloe comes from the Greek and refers to the bitter leaf gel.

Anisodontea classic cerise

(Pink Mallow)

This shrub flowered splendidly during one of our black frosts. It did not flinch, so I consider it top of my list of hardy plants. It is evergreen, very fast growing and fills a big space of at least 1m x 1m x 1m. Such an economical plant! It flowers all year and copes well in a drought. Plant it in the sun or semi shade and watch as it attracts butterflies and birds. The name originates from the Latin 'aniso'=unequal and 'odontos'=toothed which refers to the irregularly toothed leaves.

Aptenia cordifolia

(Brakvygie)

This is an evergreen, fast growing succulent, which grows to 250 mm tall. The roots are fleshy and thick and the green leaves are also fleshy, flat and heart- to oval-shaped. Flowers are purple to red, shiny and small. The flowers are self-fertilized and open from spring to autumn. They open during the bright hours of the day (midday to early afternoon). It is an ideal plant for coastal gardens as it tolerates sea spray and grows in sandy soil. It can be used in rockeries, terraced slopes and along roadside or embankments to prevent soil erosion. It requires full sun or semi-shade so it can be planted under trees. It is a medicinal plant as the leaves and stems are burnt and applied as a poultice to painful joints and used as an anti-inflammatory. It is also used magically as a love charm and a charm against sorcery. It is given to babies as a mild enema and the leaves are used as a deodorant against perspiration. The name comes from the Greek 'apten' meaning wingless which refers to the wingless seed.

Arctotheca calendula

(Cape Dandylion)

A sprawling perennial which grows to 25cm tall. The daisy-type flowers are about 6cm across and are a striking yellow. They are mostly pollinated by butterflies. It flowers all year long and is one of the hardy groundcovers that can be used as a substitute for lawn and it also prevents soil erosion. It is able to grow in any garden soil, although it is advisable to add plenty of compost. The Cape Dandelion grows best in full sun and requires a moderate amount of water. It is hardy to moderate frost. The name comes from the Latin kalendae=calendar and ula = little referring to the fact that it flowers all year.

Artemesia afra

(Wildeals or Wormwood)

This is an evergreen shrub that grows to 1m high to 1m wide. It is named after the Greek Goddess of hunting, Artemis. A tough and easy-to-grow species which adds texture and colour with its finely divided, silver-grey, aromatic foliage. White flowers occur in spring. The growth habit can be somewhat untidy, but it responds well to pruning. The lower branches become woody with age and the plant may need to be replaced after 3 to 4 years. It is frost and drought hardy and requires full sun. A must for the herb garden and useful in shrub borders. It is medicinal as the roots are used to treat colds, pneumonia and intestinal worms.An infusion of 5 grams of leaves are steeped in a cup of boiling water for 5 minutes and this is used for various respiratory ailments, gastro intestinal complaints, gout, measles, malaria, constipation, blood purifiers, acne, boils,bites and stings, diabetes, croup, whooping cough, loss of appetite, earache and toothache.Childbirth pain and menstrual cramps are treated by steaming the genitals. A bath lotion can be made to treat haemorrhoids, fever and measles. Take 40 grams of fresh leaves and bring to the boil in 2 litres of water. Leave to steep and cool. Strain and bottle ready to put into the bath. Wildeals Brandy was a popular standby to treat many ailments. As it is narcotic and analgesic, the leaves are packed into sore teeth or blocked nose and even into the ear to treat ear ache. A decoction is held in the mouth to treat gum infections. It is made by taking a bottle of brandy and adding 1 cup of Artemesia leaves, 1/4 cup Thyme, 1/2 cup mint, 1 cup of sugar, piece of ginger and 1/4 cup of Rosemary. This must steep for a month. The dose is 1 Tablespoon in water. One can also use this plant to make a moth repellent or an insecticide spray. The leaves are burnt on a braai to keep the mosquitoes away and it gives a pleasant aroma while improving the flavour of the meat. If planted on the border of the bed, it will keep dogs out of the garden. It is also useful if used as a companion plant in a veggie garden and it repels pests like worms and insects like flies and mosquitoes. It also aids soil health and is used in pot pourris and flower arrangements. Plant one in your garden as it is the larval host plant of the larvae of the Painted Lady butterfly.

Asparagus densiflorus-sprengerii

(Basket Asparagus)

An evergreen groundcover, which is water wise and fast growing in the sun, shade or semi-shade. The white flowers open in spring and they attract butterflies. The flowers are followed by red berry that attracts fruit eating birds. They are useful for containers and hanging baskets. The bright green, glistening foliage is attractive and is ideal for small gardens and is used in flower arranging. The name is derived from the Greek asparagos=shoot or sprout.

Asparagus virgatus

(Broom Asparagus)

A fast growing, evergreen groundcover that grows to 1m high. It is drought resistant and it an ideal plant for containers. It thrives well in semi-shade and it produces white flowers in spring. It attracts birds and does well under trees. It is traditionally used as a sprinkling protective charm and love charm. Medicinally it is used to treat syphilis and intestinal worms. The name is derived from the Greek asparagos=shoot or sprout.

Becium obovatum now Ocimum obovatum

(Cats Whiskers)

This evergreen ground cover with a fast growth rate grows to about 30cm. It is drought resistant, can take sun and semi-shade.It produces lovely white flowers in Spring and also attracts butterflies. It’s natural habitat is in grasslands.It is Ideal for small gardens or containers.

Buddleja saligna

(False Olive)

This small evergreen tree is frost resistant, drought resistant, fast growing in the sun and is one of our most versatile trees. It has fragrant white flowers in spring which attract birds, bees and butterflies. It is great for formal pruned hedges as it responds well to pruning or for informal hedging/screening. It has non-aggressive roots which makes it most attractive for small gardens, containers and bonsai. Plant 3 meters from buildings. It is medicinal as the leaves are used for coughs and colds and the roots are used as a purgative. The wood is used for fencing posts, small furniture and fire wood. The photo of the tree with a spiral stem was purposefully grown like that and trained over wire as a sapling. Named for Adam Buddle 1660-1715 an English amateur botanist, vicar and plant collector. He created Britain's first herbarium.

Bulbine frutescens

(Stalked Bulbine)

These occur naturally in the Cape, the Free State and KwaZulu Natal. This hardy, evergreen groundcover is dependable as it is frost resistant, water wise and fast growing in the sun. There are both orange or yellow flowering forms and they flower all year. Plant with white Osteospermum for a lovely show. The flowers attract birds and butterflies. It is a medicinal plant as the leaf gel has excellent healing, antiseptic properties and is used for relieving stings, burns, rashes, liver spots, blisters, itchy spots, fever blisters, cracked lips, cold sores, cracked finger nails, mouth ulcers, and cold sores. An infusion of a few leaves in a cup of boiling water , is left to stand and then strained and drunk for coughs, colds and arthritis. It is used magically as an emetic if the patient is going mad after being bewitched. The leaves are eaten as a relish. It will be ideal for small gardens and the flowers are long lasting in a vase. The name comes from the Latin for an onion or a bulb which is ironical as they are not bulbs. Frutescens means 'growing in a shrubby fashion'. Propagate from seed or division.

Calpurnia aurea

(Wild Laburnum)

This tree occurs in Zimbabwe, Transvaal, Natal, Eastern Cape, Transkei and Swaziland. A small evergreen, drought and frost hardy tree is suitable for townhouse gardens, in a pot or used as a hedge. It is quite fast growing and starts flowering quite early. Pruning stimulates flowering. It can grow in almost any soil as long as it has good drainage. It produces golden-yellow flowers that closely resemble the flowers of Laburnum, which is why Calpurnia aurea is commonly described as Wild Laburnum. It blooms in mid-summer for a long period of time. Flowers are followed by fruit which are thin pods. The tree is easy to prune and maintain and can be grown is a sunny or partially sunny spot. They grow to about 3 meters. It attracts birds and butterflies and is eaten by Dassies. The flowers are pollinated by carpenter bees. It is a medicinal plant as it is used to treat maggot infections and crushed roots are used to treat lice. Named after the Roman poet, Calpurnius and the Latin aurea =golden, referring to the flowers. It occurs from the Eastern Cape, KZN, Mpumalanga, Gauteng and Limpopo.

Carissa macrocarpa

(Large Num-Num)

This small evergreen tree grows to about 4 meters and is water wise. It flourishes in the sun or semi-shade. Fragrant white flowers occur from spring to mid-summer and they attract insects, butterflies and insect eating birds. It is also used for nesting sites. This shrub is useful for formal pruned hedging, informal hedging/screening or thorny security barriers. It is suitable for containers and coastal gardens as it tolerates wind and salt spray. It is a low maintenance plant. The fruit is highly nutritious as it is rich in vitamin C, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. All the Carissa have edible fruit. It is eaten raw or cooked to produce a jam, chopped into salads, jelly or bredies. They produce pink dye. Macrocarpa means 'large fruit'. The root is used medicinally for coughs, a tonic or for VD. I stick is used in a hut to repel snakes and they are planted near the homestead for protection. In West Africa the roots are used to flavour stews and a piece of root and leaf is placed in water containers to keep it fresh. On the Highveld do plant it in a protected spot as they are frost tender when young.

Chlorophytum comosum vittatum

(Variegated Hen And Chickens)

The variegated, grass-like, leaves brighten up a shady area. These plants will survive some drought, but only really look attractive if watered regularly. They have fleshy, tuberous roots about 5 to 10 cm long. When in flower, the plant produces long, thin stems which carry white flowers, as well as plantlets at the tip of the flower stem. It flowers all year round. A single plant with a few of these stems will soon become a mother plant surrounded by a flock of "babies" - hence the name 'hen and chickens'. Frost will kill the leaves, but mild frost will not damage the roots. The leaves are eaten as spinach.It's an ideal plant for containers and hanging baskets. It is also used in Auruvedic medicine and is magical as the plant is placed in the room of an expectant mother as protection and the roots are soaked in water which is then taken daily to ensure the birth of a healthy child. This water is also given to the new born child as a purgative. The name is derived from the Greek 'chloros' meaning yellow green and 'phyton' meaning plant, referring to the green leaves and greenish flowers. Comosum means tufted.

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