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Acokanthera oppositifolia

(Bushmans Poison)

This small sized evergreen tree it is hardy, drought and frost resistant with non-aggressive roots. It tolerates full sun or shade and also does well as a container plant. The clusters of pink - white, sweetly scented flowers open in spring, followed by large plum coloured fruit like berries. The stems contain poisonous milky latex which was used as an arrow poison by the Bushmen. Although it is poisonous it is used medicinally to treat snake and spider bites and also for aches, toothache and colds. The leaves are used as a snuff for headaches, convulsions, stomach pain and septicaemia. Root decoctions are used toi treat anthrax and tapeworm. Its ideal for a small garden. This plant is toxic and must be approached with caution. Accidental deaths have occurred when children have eaten the flowers or the fruit. One of our Zulu staff said that they eat the fruit. Some have died when they used the branches as sosati sticks to cook their boerewors. It has also been used for murder whereby thorns are soaked in the sap and then left in the path of a barefoot victim. It attracts birds and butterflies. It is used medicinally as an infusion of root bark is used to treat excessive or irregular menstruation.The name is derived from the Greek ,'akris' which means sharp point and 'anthera' which means anthers referring to the sharp anthers within the flowers.

Asparagus densiflorus-sprengerii

(Basket Asparagus)

An evergreen groundcover, which is water wise and fast growing in the sun, shade or semi-shade. The white flowers open in spring and they attract butterflies. The flowers are followed by red berry that attracts fruit eating birds. They are useful for containers and hanging baskets. The bright green, glistening foliage is attractive and is ideal for small gardens and is used in flower arranging. The name is derived from the Greek asparagos=shoot or sprout.

Burchellia bubalina

(Wild Pomegranate)

This small sized, evergreen tree grows to 2,5m x 1,5m. It is a slow growing, attractive, ornamental shrub that tolerates partial shade but it needs protection from the very cold winter winds and extreme frost. The tubular orange flowers occur in Spring-Summer and they attract birds like the bulbuls, starlings, barbets and mousebirds as well as butterflies as they produce copious nectar and are edible. It is suitable for containers as it has non-aggressive roots. Traditionally the roots are added to body washes and used to prepare a love charm. Named for William John Burchell 1782-1863 an English explorer, naturalist, traveler, artist and author. He worked at Kew Gardens. In 1810 he traveled to Cape Town and collected 50 000 specimens which he took back to the UK. His name is also used in Burchell's zebra and Burchell's coucal.

Buxus macowanii

(Cape Box)

This is an attractive, evergreen small tree that grows in the shade. The flowers bloom from late winter to spring, and male and female flowers are borne separately on the same tree. This is called a "monoecious" situation. The male flowers are held in short heads in the axils of the leaves and the female are usually single or occasionally grouped. The fruit is a small brown capsule and holds shiny black seeds. Fruit ripens from late summer to early winter. Once ripe, the fruit splits to release the seeds. It is used for foral hedging. The wood is used for clay-modeling tools and musical instruments. An ideal plant for containers. This specie is named for Dr Peter MacOwan (1830-1901) an academic, plant collector and professor who moved to South Africa for health reasons. He was, in 1869 the director of the Cape Town Botanical Gardens and curator of the Cape Government Herbarium.

Clivia miniata

(Bush Lily)

An evergreen groundcover which is water wise and grows in shade or semi-shade. The orange or yellow flowers occur in spring and are a favourite garden subject. The flowers attract birds and are long lasting in the vase. They do well in containers and are suitable for a shady corner in a townhouse garden. The roots are used medicinally for snake bite, fevers, childbirth, pregnancy and as a charm against evil. It is considered a good indicator of wealth, health and rains if one is growing near the homestead. They are an international collector’s item as they are hybridized to produce variegated leaves and a host of colours. The seed takes almost a year to ripen on the plant. A yellow Clivia seed is yellow when ripe, whereas the orange turn almost red. Clean the fleshy covering from the seed and this is said to strengthen ones fingernails. Rub the seeds with bleach to prevent disease and rot. Place the seed on the surface of a seed tray and cover with leaf litter. Don't over water as they they may rot otherwise they are easy to germinate. It was named for Lady Charlotte Florentina Clive in 1828. William Burchell first discovered them in the Eastern Cape in 1820. Miniata means the colour of red lead.

Crassula expansa

(Fragile Crassula)

This is a sturdy, branched, compact, rounded, evergreen succulent shrub growing from 1 - 3 m tall. It has glossy, dark to grey-green oval leaves on short, stubby branches and a robust stem or trunk. The leaves are often edged with red, more so if the plant is in full sun. The flowers are pink and the flowering time varies according to the climate. The stems soon become gnarled and stout, suggesting great age. It is grown all over the world, most often as a pot plant. It is magical and believed to bring financial good luck. The khoi eat the roots. It attracts butterflies. Some of our landscapers call it 'sprinkle spread' as it's ideal in areas where nothing else will grow. Give your plant a 'haircut' and sprinkle the bits. it will rapidly spread and thrive! This is the larval host plant for the Tailed Black-eye butterfly. Named from the Latin 'crassus'= and 'ula'= diminutive referring to the fleshy succulent leaves.

Crassula spathulata

An evergreen groundcover which is frost resistant, drought resistant, fast growing in the sun, shade or semi-shade. The white flowers are seen all year. It would be good in containers or hanging baskets as it scampers over the edge of pots. It is very fast growing, covers quickly and is ideal for small gardens and retaining walls. This is the larval host plant for the Tailed Black-eye butterfly. Named from the Latin 'crassus'= and 'ula'= diminutive referring to the fleshy succulent leaves.

Dracaena aletriformis

(Large-Leaved Dragon Tree, Grootblaardrakeboom)

This small evergreen tree will thrive in shade. It produces masses of orangy/yellow/white flowers in spring which are sweetly scented at night and attract nocturnal insects like the Hawk Moth which is the pollinator. They are followed by orange fruit which attract birds - insect eaters and fruit eaters like pigeons, louries and black-eyed bulbuls. It also attracts butterflies which feed on the leaves The Bush Nightfighter butterfly larvae wraps a part of the leaf over itself and comes out at night to feed on the leaves. Field mice and birds, like the Natal Robin nest in the leaves. It is a stunning, dramatic foliage plant which can be grown indoors if there is enough air flow or in a pot on a shady patio as it has non aggressive roots. It is frost tender so choose a protected spot close to the house where the building will provide protection. The name is derived from the Greek drakaina=a female dragon.

Falckia repens

(White Carpet)

Very fast growing, evergreen groundcover that grows to 5cm high. It can grow in sun or shade and looks great when squeasing in between rocks or when cascading down over a container. It also is useful between pavers, provided that it gets enough water. The flowers are white or pink and flowering time is from late September to December. An ideal groundcover for wetland gardens. Flat growing, attractive, indigenous alternative to "Daisy Lawn". The word 'repens' means creeping which refers to it's growth habit.

Ledebouria petiolata was Drimiopsis maculata

(Leopard Lily, Spotted-Leaved Drimiopsis, Little White Soldier)

This deciduous groundcover has flat, fleshy leaves which have darker translucent spots on them. The flowers are small bright white buds that turn pale green. It thrives in semi shade or deep shade. It grows to 25cm high but is dormant in winter. It is a frost resistant and drought resistant. An ideal plant for indoors and has been used in this way for decades in Europe and the UK. It occurs naturally in forests and grasslands from the Eastern Transvaal to the Transkei. It is used medicinally for stomach trouble in children. The name is derived from the Greek drimys = acrid as the roots cause inflammation and Latin as maculata = spotted which refers to the purple spots on the leaves.

Plectranthus zuluensis

(Zulu Spurflower)

An evergreen groundcover that grows to about 1,5m x 1,5m. It grows very fast and produce spikes of pale blue-mauve flowers throughout the year. This soft wooded shrub is suitable for containers and shady spots in the garden. It prefers very light well drained soil that contains plenty of compost. Water well in summer while it is actively growing and less in winter. This is the larval host plant for Bush Bronze, Mocker Blue, Eyed Pansy, the March Commodor and the African Leaf Commodor butterflies.

Tecoma capensis

(Cape Honeysuckle)

Fast growing, evergreen shrub that copes well with drought conditions and wind. It can grow to 2m and responds well to pruning. There are many colours available now from yellow, orange, salmon, pink and red and they flower from spring through summer. It also attracts the sunbirds, bees, butterflies like the Zebra Blue, insect eating birds and is used for nesting. I’ve seen it pruned into a formal hedge. You may need to cut it back slightly in spring if the frost has caught the tips during the winter. It also has medicinal uses and the bark infusions are used for fever, pain, insomnia, chest problems, dysentery, bleeding gums and pneumonia . Powdered bark is rubbed around the teeth to heal bleeding gums. The nursing mothers wear a necklace of pieces of stem. The leaves are browsed by stock as well as kudu, nyala, bushbuck, klipspringer and duiker. It is ideal for coastal gardens. Cattle and sheep graze the plant and the flowers and seed pods are used for pot pourri. Eve Palmer said in A Gardener's Year "...it doesn't care a button for heat, cold or drought, and is beautiful and fast". The name is derived from the Mexican term fro plants with tubular flowers.

Veltheimia bracteata

(Bush Lily)

These beautiful flowers look a bit like an Aloe. They stand about 50cm tall and are a striking pink-red or yellow in colour. They are deciduous during mid-summer. These are shade loving bulbs growing naturally in the coastal forests of the Eastern Cape. They are happy growing in a pot on a patio. Named for August Ferdinand von Veltheim ( 1741-1801] a German mineralogist, with interests in geology, Archaeology and civic matters. He was an inspector of mines and wrote a geology. He developed a beautiful botanical garden at the Castel in Harbke and was a patron of botany. He received an honoral PhD and was appointed a count by the king of Prussia.

Zantedeschia aethiopica

(White Arum Lily, Pig's Lily)

Commonly called 'Pig's Lily' as the tubers were boiled and fed to the pigs. Porcupines also enjoy the tubers. The leaves are also cooked as a pot herb, then braised with onions and chilli. A much loved evergreen groundcover which is fast growing in the shade or semi-shade. The large white flowers occur in spring and they attract birds and butterflies. There’s a multitude of uses for this much loved flower, either in wetlands, near water features or in containers. It has medicinal uses as the warmed leaves are used on sores, boils, insect bites, for gout, ulcers, headaches and rheumatism. The leaves must not be crushed as the juice is an irritant. Leaf, root and stem extracts show antibiotic properties.The leaves produce a yellow dye. The flowers are long lasting in a vase. Named for Giovanni Zantedeschia (1773-1846) an Italian physician, pharmacist and botanist. He was particularly interested in the flora of Northern Italy where he discovered and described many new species.

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