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Acokanthera oppositifolia

(Bushmans Poison)

This small sized evergreen tree it is hardy, drought and frost resistant with non-aggressive roots. It tolerates full sun or shade and also does well as a container plant. The clusters of pink - white, sweetly scented flowers open in spring, followed by large plum coloured fruit like berries. The stems contain poisonous milky latex which was used as an arrow poison by the Bushmen. Although it is poisonous it is used medicinally to treat snake and spider bites and also for aches, toothache and colds. The leaves are used as a snuff for headaches, convulsions, stomach pain and septicaemia. Root decoctions are used toi treat anthrax and tapeworm. Its ideal for a small garden. This plant is toxic and must be approached with caution. Accidental deaths have occurred when children have eaten the flowers or the fruit. One of our Zulu staff said that they eat the fruit. Some have died when they used the branches as sosati sticks to cook their boerewors. It has also been used for murder whereby thorns are soaked in the sap and then left in the path of a barefoot victim. It attracts birds and butterflies. It is used medicinally as an infusion of root bark is used to treat excessive or irregular menstruation.The name is derived from the Greek ,'akris' which means sharp point and 'anthera' which means anthers referring to the sharp anthers within the flowers.

Afrocanthium gilfillanii (was Canthium mundianum)

(Rock Alder)

An evergreen, small, sparsely branched tree with berries which attract birds, especially Loeries. The leaves are dark green and slightly hairy. Fragrant greenish flowers open in spring. It is excellent for small gardens especially where filtered light is desired. Prune out lower branches to form a tree. It is very adaptable and drought resistant, however it thrives if fed and watered regularly. The wood is used for fencing posts and tools. From the Malabar name canti for a specie of this genus 'Turkey- Berry" trees.

Buddleja saligna

(False Olive)

This small evergreen tree is frost resistant, drought resistant, fast growing in the sun and is one of our most versatile trees. It has fragrant white flowers in spring which attract birds, bees and butterflies. It is great for formal pruned hedges as it responds well to pruning or for informal hedging/screening. It has non-aggressive roots which makes it most attractive for small gardens, containers and bonsai. Plant 3 meters from buildings. It is medicinal as the leaves are used for coughs and colds and the roots are used as a purgative. The wood is used for fencing posts, small furniture and fire wood. The photo of the tree with a spiral stem was purposefully grown like that and trained over wire as a sapling. Named for Adam Buddle 1660-1715 an English amateur botanist, vicar and plant collector. He created Britain's first herbarium.

Burchellia bubalina

(Wild Pomegranate)

This small sized, evergreen tree grows to 2,5m x 1,5m. It is a slow growing, attractive, ornamental shrub that tolerates partial shade but it needs protection from the very cold winter winds and extreme frost. The tubular orange flowers occur in Spring-Summer and they attract birds like the bulbuls, starlings, barbets and mousebirds as well as butterflies as they produce copious nectar and are edible. It is suitable for containers as it has non-aggressive roots. Traditionally the roots are added to body washes and used to prepare a love charm. Named for William John Burchell 1782-1863 an English explorer, naturalist, traveler, artist and author. He worked at Kew Gardens. In 1810 he traveled to Cape Town and collected 50 000 specimens which he took back to the UK. His name is also used in Burchell's zebra and Burchell's coucal.

Buxus macowanii

(Cape Box)

This is an attractive, evergreen small tree that grows in the shade. The flowers bloom from late winter to spring, and male and female flowers are borne separately on the same tree. This is called a "monoecious" situation. The male flowers are held in short heads in the axils of the leaves and the female are usually single or occasionally grouped. The fruit is a small brown capsule and holds shiny black seeds. Fruit ripens from late summer to early winter. Once ripe, the fruit splits to release the seeds. It is used for foral hedging. The wood is used for clay-modeling tools and musical instruments. An ideal plant for containers. This specie is named for Dr Peter MacOwan (1830-1901) an academic, plant collector and professor who moved to South Africa for health reasons. He was, in 1869 the director of the Cape Town Botanical Gardens and curator of the Cape Government Herbarium.

Calpurnia aurea

(Wild Laburnum)

This tree occurs in Zimbabwe, Transvaal, Natal, Eastern Cape, Transkei and Swaziland. A small evergreen, drought and frost hardy tree is suitable for townhouse gardens, in a pot or used as a hedge. It is quite fast growing and starts flowering quite early. Pruning stimulates flowering. It can grow in almost any soil as long as it has good drainage. It produces golden-yellow flowers that closely resemble the flowers of Laburnum, which is why Calpurnia aurea is commonly described as Wild Laburnum. It blooms in mid-summer for a long period of time. Flowers are followed by fruit which are thin pods. The tree is easy to prune and maintain and can be grown is a sunny or partially sunny spot. They grow to about 3 meters. It attracts birds and butterflies and is eaten by Dassies. The flowers are pollinated by carpenter bees. It is a medicinal plant as it is used to treat maggot infections and crushed roots are used to treat lice. Named after the Roman poet, Calpurnius and the Latin aurea =golden, referring to the flowers. It occurs from the Eastern Cape, KZN, Mpumalanga, Gauteng and Limpopo.

Carissa macrocarpa

(Large Num-Num, noem-noem)

This small evergreen tree grows to about 4 meters and is water wise. It flourishes in the sun or semi-shade. Fragrant white flowers occur from spring to mid-summer and they attract insects, butterflies and insect eating birds. It is also used for nesting sites. This shrub is useful for formal pruned hedging, informal hedging/screening or thorny security barriers. It is suitable for containers and coastal gardens as it tolerates wind and salt spray. It is a low maintenance plant. The fruit is highly nutritious as it is rich in vitamin C, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. All the Carissa have edible fruit. It is eaten raw or cooked to produce a jam, chopped into salads, jelly or bredies. They produce pink dye. Macrocarpa means 'large fruit'. The root is used medicinally for coughs, a tonic or for VD. I stick is used in a hut to repel snakes and they are planted near the homestead for protection. In West Africa the roots are used to flavour stews and a piece of root and leaf is placed in water containers to keep it fresh. On the Highveld do plant it in a protected spot as they are frost tender when young.

Combretum bracteosum

(Hiccup Nut)

The hiccup nut is a usually a shrub or small tree which scrambles into nearby vegetation. It grows up to between 2 and 4 m high, although if it has support from other trees it can reach up to 8 m. It spreads to between 4 and 5 m wide. The showy, scented flowers are bright red but differ from those of other Combetum in that the petals are obvious and are responsible for most of the colour. Flowering occurs in spring, followed by the edible fruit which is not at all like the other Combretums as it is nut shaped. Hence the common name. It is not known whether the nuts cause or cure hiccups. The nuts are edible once roasted. It likes a warm summer with a moderate of high rainfall. It should be planted in a full sun or semi-shade and it an ideal plant for screening and hedging. It also attracts birds and Striped Policeman and the Spotted Sailor butterflies and a moth specie as this is their larval host.

Cryptocarya latifolia

(Broad-Leaved Quince)

An evergreen, medium tree with a dense crown. The bark is grey-brown, smooth with fine vertical fissures. The leaves are leathery, dark green with fine hairs above and greenish brown below. The white flowers are small and borne in branched sprays and they open in spring .The spherical fruit ripens to black. It should be planted in sun or semi-shade. It is medicinal and magical and it also attracts mammals. The name is derived from the Greek 'kryptos'= hidden and 'karya'= a nut as the succulent fruit is hidden.

Cussonia transvaalensis

(Transvaal Cabbage Tree)

Small to medium-sized tree up to 5 m, with attractive, coarsely textured grey-green foliage. The bark is corky and deeply longitudinally fissured. The small, green flowers are borne in dense finger-like structures in spring-summer and they are pollinated by insects. The flowers are followed by the production of small, purple-black berries, which are relished by many species of fruit-eating birds. It requires well-drained soil and a warm garden as it is frost tender. It can tolerate more water in the garden than what it gets in the wild and makes a lovely garden subject. It attracts birds. Named for Pierre Cusson 1727-1783 who was a French Jesuit, mathematician, physician, professor and botanist who traveled extensively and wrote many publications.

Diospyros simii

(Climbing Star-Apple)

An evergreen small sized tree. It is a drought resistant, fast growing and it grows well when planted in the sun or semi shade. It produces white flowers in Spring which are visited by butterflies and these are followed by edible fruits which are orange. They are about 3 cm in diameter and are attractive as well as attracting fruit eating birds.This is also a great little tree for a butterfly garden as it is the larval host for butterflies.

Dovyalis caffra

(Kei Apple)

This small 5m evergreen tree is frost resistant, water wise, fast growing in the sun or semi-shade. The cream flowers are rich in nectar, which attracts butterflies, and are produced in spring and are followed by apricot fruit which attract birds - insect and fruit eaters like the Louries and black eyed Blackeyed Bulbuls. It should produce fruit when about 3 years old.It makes a safe nesting site. It is useful for an informal hedge/screen or a thorny security barrier as they retain their lower branches and can be planted close together as they do not have aggressive roots. The fruit is also useful as it is rich in vitamin C and although sour it is tasty and is eaten raw or used for jelly and jam making. It is eaten by Monkeys and Baboon. The trees are also browsed by game. The Kei Apple will do well in a container and is popular for bonsai. The branches are also used in flower arrangements.The oval leaves are shiny, dark green with a smooth margin. It is successful if planted in a coastal garden or in a Highveld garden. This tree was first grown in Europe in 1870 but is now grown worldwide, in California, the Mediterranean and Australia. Plant it 2 meters from buildings and pools. The name is derived from the Greek dovyalis = spear refering to the long thorns.

Dracaena aletriformis

(Large-Leaved Dragon Tree, Grootblaardrakeboom)

This small evergreen tree will thrive in shade. It produces masses of orangy/yellow/white flowers in spring which are sweetly scented at night and attract nocturnal insects like the Hawk Moth which is the pollinator. They are followed by orange fruit which attract birds - insect eaters and fruit eaters like pigeons, louries and black-eyed bulbuls. It also attracts butterflies which feed on the leaves The Bush Nightfighter butterfly larvae wraps a part of the leaf over itself and comes out at night to feed on the leaves. Field mice and birds, like the Natal Robin nest in the leaves. It is a stunning, dramatic foliage plant which can be grown indoors if there is enough air flow or in a pot on a shady patio as it has non aggressive roots. It is frost tender so choose a protected spot close to the house where the building will provide protection. The name is derived from the Greek drakaina=a female dragon.

Ekebergia capensis

(Cape Ash)

It is a beautiful, tall tree with a lovely canopy. Evergreen over much of its range however it is briefly deciduous in cold or dry winters. The dark, glossy leaves are lighter beneath and they turn yellow then red just before they fall. The sprays of tiny white flowers are sweetly scented, like orange blossoms and are pollinated by bees and ants. It flowers between September and November and male and female flowers occur on separate trees. It produces large fruit which are fleshy and red but only female trees bear fruits. These are edible and taste of onions. They are eaten by birds like the Hornbills, Louries and Mousebirds, mammals, monkey and baboon. The fallen fruit is eaten by bushpig, bushuck and nyala. It is also browsed by game, kudu, nyala and bushbuck and is used as fodder in times of drought. It is useful for a game farm. It also attracts butterflies as it is the larval host plant for the White-barred Emperor butterflies, the fastest flying butterfly in Southern Africa. Nine moth species also use this tree. Plant in full sun where it will get lots of water, Be warned that it is frost tender and is only suitable for warm Highveld gardens. The wood is used for furniture and beams and the bark is used medicinally for heartburn and dysentery. Roots are used to treat coughs, gastritis and headaches. The leaves are used to treat intestinal worms. It makes a good, fast growing street and shade tree. Plant it 4 meters from a building or a pool. It is a protected tree in South Africa. Named for Carl Gustov Ekeberg (1716-1784) a Swedish ships captain who worked for the Dutch East India Company. He was also a chemist, cartographer and a surgeon. Between 1742 and 1778 he made 10 trips to China and India and brought back plants for his friend Linnaeus. He wrote numerous books about his travels as well as one about inoculation. He was a fellow of the Swedish Academy of Science and Knight of the Order of Vasa.

Ensete ventricosum

(African Wild Banana)

Evergreen large shrub that grows about 6 m high and 4 m wide. It has a stout fleshy stem crowned by lush tropical looking banana like leaves. It produces cream flowers in spring. It flowers and fruits once then dies. It is an excellent accent plant for a water garden and lends a tropical atmosphere to wherever it is planted. Plant it in full sun to semi-shade where it will thrive but water it regularly. It is medicinal and a decoction of the stem is used to treat liver problems.

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