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Aloe now Aloidendron barberae (bainesii)

(Tree Aloe)

This well-known tall Aloe is a favourite with landscapers who want to make a statement in a garden. It is an architectural plant that can grow as tall is 18 meters with a trunk of 1m in the wild. It is fast growing and likes water. The flowers are pinky orange and occur during winter. These flowers attract the sunbirds. The plant is also used for nesting sites of other birds. Protect them from frost for the first few winters. It is successful if planted in a succulent or Aloe garden or rockery. They are susceptible to leaf scale which is a grey. I use Spray and cook which suffocates them. One could also use an insecticide. They can then be removed from the leaves with a soft brush or cloth. Medicinally the sap is used to treat burns, skin irritations and insect bites. Don't plant it too close to walls, pathways or decking as the stem expands with age. The word Aloe comes from the Greek and refers to the bitter leaf gel.Robert Allen Dyer (1874) named this Aloe in honour of Mary Elizabeth Barber 1818-1899 who was a botanist, entomologist, painter and poet. She was a noted authority on South African flora. This is a protected plant in South Africa.

Cunonia capensis

(Red Alder)

It is a beautiful and versatile, evergreen specimen tree with dark green serrated, glossy leaves and contrasting reddish leaf-stalks. The yellow and reddish growth tips are enclosed by two large stipules pressed together forming a spoon-like shape, from which it gets its common name 'Butterspoon Tree'. A relatively small tree, growing well in both sun and shade, it has a non-invasive root so can be planted 2 meters from a building or a pool. It requires a moist, mild climate and a generous supply of water. This water-loving tree is particularly suitable for marshy, water-logged gardens, to enhance natural water features, to grace streams and dams and is a good choice for large pots on a patio where it will grow beautifully for years. Trees planted in drier areas will need frequent watering, and shelter from sun, heat, cold/hot winds and frost. They prefer a cool moist space. The large bottlebrush-shaped flowers that appear in autumn are sweetly scented and attract insects and butterflies. The fruits are small, brown, two-horned capsules which release very fine, sticky seed. The wood is used for furniture. Named after Johann Cuno 1708-1780 who was a botanist, merchant and poet.

Euphorbia ingens

(Common Tree Euphorbia)

An upright, succulent tree with a dark green crown which is well rounded and often shaped like a hot-air balloon. Grows up to 12 m. The branches are segmented with spines running along the ridges of the segments. It produces small, greenish yellow flowers on the ridges of the topmost segment of every branch from autumn to winter. The fruit is a round 3-lobed capsule which turns red to purple when ripening. These plants are easy to grow and make a wonderful addition to a succulent garden or rockery. As it is a succulent it needs little to no maintenance, being a very drought hardy plant. It does best in the open sun. Because of its poisonous latex/sap no pests seem to bother these trees. The latex of this tree is extremely toxic and can cause severe skin irritations, blindness and severe illness to humans and animals if swallowed. Grass is soaked in the latex and used as fish poison. it is also used medicinally in small amounts to treat cancer. The wood is used for boats, doors and planks. The trunk is first burnt to solidify the latex before it is cut as the latex in the eyes can cause blindness. It can be used for hedging and screening and an effective thorny barrier. It is frost tender. The fruit is enjoyed by monkeys while porcupine and cane rats eat the roots. The name is derived from the Greek eu=well and phorbe=pasteur referring to the Greek physician Euphorbus.

Ficus sur

(Broom Cluster Fig)

An evergreen tree with a smooth and almost white bark. The autumn leaves can be showy but the spring flush is often spectacular as the new leaves are a brilliant red, changing to bronze. They sprout from the trunk or main branches. The leaves are eaten by cattle, elephant, kudu, blue duiker and nyala. They are also eaten by monkeys and baboon. The fallen fruit is also enjoyed by bushpigs. It tolerates slight frost and it needs full sun and lots of water. The fruits are edible. It is an excellent shade tree and is a magnet for birds and bats when the fruits are ripe. Even the Puffback Shrike enjoys the fruit. At least 3 butterfly species eat the leaves including the Fig Tree Blue. This tree is pollinated by a wasp. It will also thrive in a boggy spot provided that some of the roots are not in waterlogged soil. The roots are aggressive so don't plant it in a small garden or near buildings. It is not frost resistant. It certainly is a useful tree as the fruits are made into jam, the wood is used for fire by friction, drum making and mortars for grinding flour. Inner bark is used for rope making. It is also medicinal as the milky latex is used to treat lung and throat problems while the roots are used to expel the placenta of cows. The bark is also said to increase milk production in lactation mothers. The latex is also used to treat painful eyes and cataracts. A root infusion is taken by both men and women for infertility and to prevent an abortion. The bark is used for skin rashes and constipation. It is fast growing and prefers to be planted in the shade. The name is derived from the Hebrew fag or the Persian fica referring to the edible figs.

Harpephyllum caffrum

(Wild Plum)

This is a large, evergreen tree that grows to 15 m tall. The main stem is clean and straight, but the forest form often has supporting buttress roots. The bark is smooth when young, becoming rough, dark grey-brown with fissures as it grows older. The Zulu common name is 'crocodile skin' which refers to the bark. The branches are curved upwards, with leaves crowded towards the ends, forming a thick crown at the top of the tree. The whitish green flowers in summer are borne near the ends of the branches with male and female flowers on separate trees. The tasty, oval, plum-like fruits first appear green and then turn red when they ripen in autumn. They contain a single seed and are enjoyed by people, monkeys, bushbabies and birds, especially the Cape Parrot. The fruit makes a good wine and jelly. The bark is a popular traditional medicine. It is used to treat acne and eczema, and is usually applied in the form of facial saunas and skin washes. It is used by people with 'bad blood' that results in pimples on the face. Powdered burnt bark is used to treat sprains and bone fractures. Bark is also used for dyeing, and it has a mauve or pink colour. In some parts of the Eastern Cape, root decoctions are traditionally taken for paralysis thought to have been contracted from walking over an area that has been poisoned or polluted through sorcery. It is a good shade tree to have in a garden to attract birds and is the larval host to the Common Hairtail butterflies and 7 moth species. Be aware that it is frost tender on the Highveld. Fast growing from truncheons and popular bonsai subject. Plant it 4 meters from a building or a pool. The name is derived from the Greek (h)arpago=sickle : phyllon = leaf as the leaflets are sickle shaped.

Kigelia africana

(Sausage Tree)

This large deciduous tree grows to 18m and it is very fast growing. The trunk has light brown sometimes flaky bark and supports a dense rounded to spreading crown of leathery slightly glossy foliage. The leaves are browsed by kudu and elephant. The sausage tree produces long open sprays of large wrinkled maroon or dark red trumpet–shaped flowers that are velvety on the inside and that virtually overflow with nectar. The flowers have an unpleasant smell at night which attracts the bats which pollinate them. Baboon and monkeys eat the flowers and the fallen flowers are eaten by kudu, nyala, porcupine, impala and grey duiker. Nocturnal animals like bushpig, civets also eat the flowers. The fruits are unique, huge, grey–brown and sausage like and weigh about 4- 10 kg. Plant where falling fruit will not do damage to cars. They have antibacterial properties and is said to cure skin cancer. The fruit pulp is used in the production of cosmetics. Seeds from the ripe fruit are edible if roasted but are only used as famine food. Some say that the fruit is inedible and that the seeds are poisonous when green. Hippo and giraffe also eat the seed pods. The fruit are hung in a hut to protect against whirlwinds and evil. Birds eat the seeds. It has a rather aggressive root system, so it must be planted far from buildings and swimming pools. Plant alongside rivers and dams on farms and game farms. It is also suitable for large estates and municipal parks. It attracts birds and has numerous medicinal uses from snake bite treatment, ulcers, syphillis, rheumatism, pneumonia, ulcers, epilepsy, toothache to stomach and kidney complaints. Also used to ward off evil. It is also said to be an aphrodisiac and is used to fatten babies!. Lactating mothers rub the fruit on their breasts to stimulate milk production. The boiled fruit produces a red dye. The ripe fruit is mixed with honey and the bark of the tree to ferment beer. The hard wood is used for canoes as it does not crack. The mokoro's used in the Okavango Delta are carved from straight tree trunks. It is not a good firewood but the pods are burnt during times of wood scarcity. It is a larval host to the Coast Glider butterfly and one moth specie. The tree is regarded as holy and church services are held in the shade of these magnificent tree-cathedrals. It is a protected tree in South Africa. The Mozambican name is kigeli-keia. In his diary, David Livingston described the Sausage Tree under which they camped before seeing the Victoria Falls. This was at Kazangulu where Botswana, Zimbabwe, Zambia and the Caprivi meet. Kazangulu was named after this famous Sausage Tree. One African name means 'the fat tail of the sheep' and the Arabic name means 'the father of kit bags'. If somebody dies away from home, then the family bury a fruit in their memory.

Podocarpus falcatus now Afrocarpus falcatus

(Outeniqua or Common Yellowwood)

An attractive evergreen tree that grows to 15m x 12m. It is a protected tree in South Africa. It is frost hardy, wind resistant and requires water as it naturally occurs on misty mountain slopes with high humidity. In 1976 it was listed as SA National Tree and one needs a permit to fell these trees. It is often used as a Christmas tree. Although it has the smallest leaves of all the Podocarpus species, it grows to be the tallest. This is the famous 'Big Tree' of the Knysna Forest. It is slow growing at first but once established grows fast. It looks impressive lining a driveway as an avenue and it can be used as a windbreak or screen on a farm or as a container plant on a patio. The fruit are eaten by bats, birds, monkeys and bush pigs. The bark is burnt in a kraal to prevent the cattle from straying. It is an important nesting and food for the endangered Cape Parrot, and is visited by Louries and Pigeons. The fine grained wood is used for ceilings, floors, doors, boats and furniture. The ripe fruit is edible and the sap is used medicinally for chest complaints. Plant it about 5 meters from a building and a pool. This is a popular bonsai subject. The name is derived from the Greek podos = foot and karpos - fruit, referring to the fleshy foot , the receptacle, on which the fruit develops.

Podocarpus latifolius

(Real Yellowwood)

This is a slow-growing, large, evergreen tree, which grows to between 20 and 30 m tall. It occurs naturally on misty mountain slopes with a high rainfall so it needs lots of water. It is a protected tree in South Africa. It is very long-lived and is able to withstand some frost. The unusual textural appearance of the leaves makes it a good contrast or background for other trees. The colourful receptacles of the female tree are most attractive. This tree would make an interesting container plant and can withstand short periods indoors. The leaf size and interesting bark are good characteristics for bonsai. It produces greenish flowers in spring and the wood is used for furniture. When the berry-like receptacles ripen, birds such as pigeons and turacos feed on them. They are also eaten by monkeys, bushpigs and sometimes by people. The bark is used in traditional medicine. Plant it about 4 meters from a building and a pool. The name is derived from the Greek podos = foot and karpos - fruit, referring to the fleshy foot , the receptacle, on which the fruit develops.

Prunus africana

(Red Stinkwood)

This is a medium to large (10 - 20 m) handsome, evergreen tree with a spreading crown. It can become huge under frost-free conditions, but is usually medium-sized in gardens. The main stem is straight, with dark brown bark, cracking in a characteristic oblong pattern. The white flowers are scented, small, and borne singly or in sprays up to 70 mm long in October to May. The fruit is spherical, dull purplish brown, about 10 mm in diameter, in branched bunches (Sept. to Nov.). The bark is exploited in Africa on a large scale for its medicinal value. In South Africa the bark is used to treat chest pains. The bark extracts have become popular in Europe for the treatment of benign prostate hypertrophy. It is also reputed to be very poisonous and to have magical properties. The close-grained, reddish brown wood is occasionally used for furniture, although it does not season well and splits and twists, so its use is limited. The growth is rapid, up to a metre per year if the climate is temperate and the rainfall is good. It a very good tree to attract birds and butterflies. This is a protected plant in South Africa.

Rapanea melanophloeos

(Cape Beech)

Rapanea melanophloes Cape Beech The steady and graceful Cape beech is suitable for a large garden or it can be used as a hardy screening plant, as it is dense, evergreen and sends out suckers to form bush clumps. It requires low maintenance, if planted in the right area. Do not plant it next to paved areas, where roots and new suckers can sprout. This is a hardy tree which is useful for a coastal garden and windy areas. When young, the leaves are pale green and maroon. Small, whitish or creamy yellow clusters of flowers appear in June to December. The fruits are spherical in shape, green when young and purple when matured. It is not common to find flowers and fruit on the same tree. Fruits start appearing three months after the flowers. The flower attracts bees and flies and the fruit are eaten birds like guinea fowl, pigeons, louries and barbets. Baboons, bushpigs and vervet monkeys also enjoy the fruit. The wood is very hard and is used for furniture and violin making as it is very similar to the European Beech. It is used medicinally for stomach and heart complaints and as a charm to ward off evil. The roots are non aggressive. The name is probably derived from the Guinean name meaning unknown.

Schotia brachypetala

(Weeping Boerbean)

This large, handsome, evergreen tree is drought resistant and relatively frost resistant in warm areas. It is found in riverine forests so is adaptable as it grows in the sun, shade or semi-shade. It occurs naturally in Botswana, Zimbabwe, Transvaal and Natal. The stunning rich, deep red flowers open in spring and summer and they attract birds, the insect, fruit and nectar eaters. They are also eaten by louries, parrots, baboons and monkeys. It flowers best after a long dry winter so don't be tempted to water it in the winter. The leaves are browsed by baboon, giraffe, impala, nyala and black rhino. It is also used for nesting sites and attracts Foxy and Giant charaxes butterflies. The bark is traditionally used to make sangoma's red dye and the seeds are roasted and eaten. The seeds were eaten by the early Boers. It’s a magical tree and is used to ward off evil. There are many medicinal uses as a decoction is drunk after excessive beer drinking and for heartburn, nausea and diarrhoea. The smoke from the leaves is inhaled for nose bleeds. Powdered leaves are put on ulcers to speed up healing. The bark contains tannin and is used for tanning leather. The wood is hard and is used for furniture, flooring and fuel. It’s a show stopper when in flower but do remember that it drops nectar on parked cars, hence the common name! The roots are not aggressive so plant it about 3 meters from a building and a pool. This is a popular bonsai subject. The Tsonga common name of "Mvhovhovhoz" imitates the sound of the swarming insects at flowering. Named for Richard van der Schot ( 1730-1790) a Dutch gardener who studied at Leiden and became head gardener at the imperial Gardens at Schonbrunn. He was then asked to take a 4 year journery to Grenada, Saint Vincent, Aruba, Cuba and Curacao to collect tropical plants and 'curiosities' for the palaces natural history collection.

Syzygium cordatum

(Water Berry)

An evergreen, water-loving tree, which grows to a height of 8 -15 m. This tree is often found near streams, on forest margins or in swampy spots. The leaves are elliptic to circular, bluish green on top and a paler green below. Young leaves are reddish and they are browsed by game. The white to pinkish fragrant flowers are borne in branched terminals and have numerous fluffy stamens and produce abundant nectar and therefore planted by bee keepers. It flowers from August to November. The fruits are oval berries, red to dark-purple when ripe and the fleshy fruit is slightly acidic in flavour and is eaten by children, monkeys, bush pigs, bush-babies and birds. The berries are also used to make an alcoholic drink. The powdered bark is used as a fish poison which turns the water blue for a week. In Central Africa the tree is known as a remedy for stomach ache, colds, fever and diarrhea. It is also used to treat respiratory ailments and tuberculosis. The bark, leaves and roots are used to make a poultice to increase the milk flow of lactating mothers. This beautiful tree attracts birds and other insects so it is ideal for a bird garden. The wood is used for furniture and for boat building as it is durable in water. It is the larval host plant of the Silver-barred Charaxes, Morant's Orange and the Apricot playboy butterflies. This is a protected tree is South Africa. Plant it 5 meters from a building or a pond. The name is derived from the Greek syn=together; zygon=a yoke hence syzygos=joined; referring to the paired branches and leaves.

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