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Antidesma venosum

(Tassel Berry)

This evergreen to semi-deciduous tree or shrub grows to 4 m tall, with a dense, roundish crown. The old stems are buff-grey in colour. The branchlets are brown and are scattered with pale grey lenticels and the new twigs are very hairy. The large leaves are leathery, oval shiny dark green above and brown/green below with orange/brown hairs. The leaves and shoots are eaten by game. It produces green flowers, male and female flowers on separate trees, in summer followed by colourful fruit that ripens in stages so they are green, white, yellow, pinkish, bright red, dark red and purple. fruits. These are enjoyed by the fruit eating birds, antelope, monkeys and people, but they are not easily digested. They taste sweet and slightly acidic, like mulberries. The female trees produce berries so plant a few to ensure that you will have fruit. They are eaten by Kudu, nyala, impala, monkeys, baboons, guinea fowl, francolin and other birds. The leaves are browsed by kudu, elephant, nyala and bushbuck. This species is a very decorative, neat shade tree and is suitable for gardens and bird parks. It is also used as a screen plant in a shrubbery. This tree is frost tender so should only be planted in frost free areas in the sun, and not suitable for a Highveld garden. An ideal plant for containers. It attracts birds and butterflies. The wood is used for hut building and fuel. Bark, leaves and fruit are used medicinally for stomach complaints. The roots are said to be toxic but if you bath in water with roots added to the it, it will cure bodily aches and pains. The flowers smell like honey or rotting watermelon. The name is derived from the Greek 'anti'=against and Johannes Burman's term for poison. (He was a friend of Linnaeus). This plant is used as an anti-venom for snake bite.

Berchemia zeheri

(Red Ivory)

This evergreen to semi-deciduous tree is drought resistant but not frost resistant. Flowers are yellowish or greenish white, star-like in clusters on stalks 10 mm long. The flowers appear between September and December and are followed by sweet, yellow to brownish red fruit from January to April. The flowers are sweetly scented and attract various insects and bees. These attract the insect eating birds.The fruits are edible and are enjoyed by people, birds and animals. Plant it in the sun.The beautiful red wood is utilized. It is a medicinal plant and is is used as strong muthi against evil spirits. The leaves are browsed by game. The beautiful wood is used for ornaments, furniture and fence posts. Named for Jacob Peter Berthout van Berchem ( 1763-1832)

Brachylaena discolor

(Wild Silver Oak)

These medium sized evergreen trees are frost resistant, drought resistant and are happy in the sun or the shade. It tolerates poor soil and coastal winds so is useful to stabilize sand dunes at the coast.The cream flowers are rich in nectar and open in summer. They attract birds like the shrikes and the orioles, butterflies and mammals. The leaves are browsed by Nyala, Bushbuck,Diuker and the Black Rhino strip the bark. The early settlers burnt them and used the ash to make soap whereas the Zulu diviners use the stems and roots to communicate with their ancestors. It is used medicinally as the leaves are pounded and ingested for intestinal parasite and roundworm. discolor means varying in colour which refers to the dark upper leaf and the silver under leaf. It is also used as a tonic for diabetes. The wood is used for carving, boat and hut making, fencing and spear shafts. It has non-aggressive roots so can be planted 3 meters walls or in pots. It is also useful as a hedge or windbreak.

Celtis africana

(White Stinkwood)

This medium deciduous tree, is frost resistant, drought resistant and fast growing in sun or semi-shade. if well watered it will grow 2 meters a year. It occurs from the Cape Peninsula to Ethiopia. Tiny yellow, sweetly scented flowers occur in summer and they attract insect and fruit eating birds. The fruit is also eaten by monkeys and baboon. The tree is also browsed by game like kudu, nyala, bushbuck, impala and grey duiker. It is also used for nesting sites and a tall perch from which to lookout. Butterflies like the African Snout, Blue-spotted Emperor and the Foxy Emperor as well as several moths are also attracted to this fodder tree. It is a popular bonsai subject and the wood is used for furniture, construction, flooring, mine props, toys, ladders, boxes and crates. It is also used for firewood as well as charcoal production.It can be planted in a container. The common name is as a result of the unpleasant smell when the wood is first cut. It is magical as is used to protect against lightening by mixing the wood shavings with crocodile fat. The medicinal uses are numerous, treating a fever, headache, sore eyes and pleurisy. The bark is made into rope. It is always found where there is underground water or streams. Plant it 6 meters from buildings or pools. This is a protected tree in South Africa.

Combretum erythrophyllum

(River Bushwillow)

This is a medium to large deciduous tree with reddish autumn colours. Flowers are cream to pale yellow, slightly scented and open in September to November. The fruit are small, 4-winged and a greenish brown colour, ripening to yellowish brown and drying to a honey-brown. They stay on the tree for a long time. The fruit is poisonous and results in hiccups. A popular shade tree, surprisingly drought and frost resistant and fast growing, reaching 4-6 m in three years. The gum has interesting antibiotic properties and is applied to sores. It is non-toxic, elastic, producing a non-cracking varnish. Ornaments, cattle troughs and grain mortars are made from the wood, which is yellow, tough and easily worked. It is also used as fire wood. A dark, rich brown dye is extracted from the roots which is used when tanning hides. The dried fruits also work well in flower arrangements and are eaten by pied barbets. It has non-aggressive roots and attracts birds. It is the larval host plant for several butterflies like Liordes Hairtail, Red -tab Policeman, Two-pip Policeman and the Orange-barred Playboy. I just love these charming butterfly names! It is an ideal tree for wetlands as well as game farms as it is browsed by Kudu, Bushbuck, Eland, Giraffe and Elephant. It is often used as a street tree, in large gardens and along rivers. There are many medicinal uses. Root bark and stem bark are used to treat a cough, infertility, leprosy and VD. The bark is taken during labour to ease childbirth, to treat infertility and as an aphrodisiac. The leaves are used for coughs and abdominal pains.The roots, which some regard as poisonous are used as a purgative, to treat venereal diseases and as a prophylactic for V.D. The roots are fed to dogs by the Zulu to fatten them up.

Combretum molle

(Velvet Bushwillow)

Velvet bush willow is a small to medium-sized deciduous tree that grows to 13 meters with a rounded crown. It has grey bark when young and this becomes grey-brown or almost black when older. Young leaves are attractive with a light pink or orange colour. Its flowering time is Sept.–Nov. The flowers are in dense axillary spikes with a greenish yellow colour, strongly scented and attractive to bees and other insects. The fruit is light green with reddish shade which turns red-brown when dry. Dried fruit is used in flower arrangements. It is used medicinally as the boiled root decoction is used for abortions, and to treat constipation, infertility, diarrhea, bleeding after childbirth, convulsions, fattening infants, backache and for difficulty walking which is caused by sorcery, headaches, stomach aches, fever, dysentery and swellings, and as an anthelmintic for hookworm. The leaves are chewed, soaked in water and the juice drunk for chest complaints. They are also boiled and used as a hot compress for wounds and snake bites. It can also be used as an inhalant in a hot steam bath to treat headaches. It is termite-proof and can be used to make fence posts, implement handles and bowls for grinding peanuts and mealies and mortars. Red fabric dyes are made from the leaves, whereas dyes made from the roots are yellow-brown. It is browsed by game. It is the larval host plant for the Guineafowl and Morant's Skipper butterflies. Canaries strip the bark for nesting. A very useful tree.

Combretum zeyheri

(Large-Fruited Bushillow)

This medium-sized, semi-deciduous tree grows very slowly to 10 meters and is frost sensitive. It often has twisted trunks and the bark is light grey, smooth to fissured in patches, sometimes flaking. The leaves are large and bigger than many of the other Combretums. The yellow flowers occur in summer. The roots are used for basket weaving and to make necklaces for young girls and it is used medicinally to treat coughs and stomach pains.

Croton gratissimus

(Lavender Fever Berry)

This is an attractive and versatile deciduous shrub or small tree for the home garden. It is capable of becoming a large tree in certain instances and it may reach 10m high if there is sufficient heat and rain. It is a slender tree with fine, drooping foliage and a crown which spreads upwards in a 'V'-shape with drooping terminal branches. The elongated leaves are green above and the lower surface is silvery with little brown scales. They are aromatic when crushed hence the latin name gratissimus which means most pleasant. It bears small cream to golden yellow flowers in summer that are visited by bees. Fruit is formed between September and November and is a three lobed capsule. First green then it turns yellow as it matures. In late autumn the capsule dries out and explodes flinging the seeds some distance from the mother plant. The fruit is enjoyed by birds. It is a drought resistant and requires sun to semi-shade. It’s an ideal plant for containers. The root is used medicinally as a purgative or an enema for fevers. The root is also a protective charm and is used as an aphrodisiac.The bark is used for abdominal disorders and is rubbed into incisions on the skin for pains in the chest. The leaves are placed on hot coals and inhaled for insomnia. They are also placed in baths for fevers and bleeding gums. Despite being a poisonous tree, there are many medicinal uses. Powdered leaves are used to make perfume. The wood is heavy and termite resistant so is used for huts, fence poles and sticks. It is the larval host plant to the green-veined emperor butterfly.

Cryptocarya latifolia

(Broad-Leaved Quince)

An evergreen, medium tree with a dense crown. The bark is grey-brown, smooth with fine vertical fissures. The leaves are leathery, dark green with fine hairs above and greenish brown below. The white flowers are small and borne in branched sprays and they open in spring .The spherical fruit ripens to black. It should be planted in sun or semi-shade. It is medicinal and magical and it also attracts mammals. The name is derived from the Greek 'kryptos'= hidden and 'karya'= a nut as the succulent fruit is hidden.

Cussonia transvaalensis

(Transvaal Cabbage Tree)

Small to medium-sized tree up to 5 m, with attractive, coarsely textured grey-green foliage. The bark is corky and deeply longitudinally fissured. The small, green flowers are borne in dense finger-like structures in spring-summer and they are pollinated by insects. The flowers are followed by the production of small, purple-black berries, which are relished by many species of fruit-eating birds. It requires well-drained soil and a warm garden as it is frost tender. It can tolerate more water in the garden than what it gets in the wild and makes a lovely garden subject. It attracts birds. Named for Pierre Cusson 1727-1783 who was a French Jesuit, mathematician, physician, professor and botanist who traveled extensively and wrote many publications.

Dovyalis zeyheri

(Wild Apricot)

This a small to medium sized, evergreen tree grows from 2-13m. The stem can be single or multi-stemmed. The bark is a light grey-brown and it becomes rough and flaking on older trees. The flowers are small and greenish yellow. Male and female flowers are borne on separate trees from August to December. The fruits are found only on female trees. They are bright orange and oval in shape with a velvety texture. They reach up to 25 mm long and appear from November to May. The wild apricot is a good tree for wild fruit which tastes sour but refreshing and is eaten by people and animals. The fruit makes a good jelly but some sweetening is required. The thorns which provide protection for birds' nests, along with the fruit make this an excellent wildlife garden tree. The caterpillars of the African Leopard Butterfly feed on the leaves. In the garden, the wild apricot is tolerant of moderate frost, although young plants should be protected for the first two years. It is also drought resistant and grows well in either full sun or light shade. It grows well in sandy or loamy soil to which compost has been added. Because of its non aggressive roots system its an ideal plant for containers. A lovely shrub/tree for birds and butterflies.

Ekebergia capensis

(Cape Ash)

It is a beautiful, tall tree with a lovely canopy. Evergreen over much of its range however it is briefly deciduous in cold or dry winters. The dark, glossy leaves are lighter beneath and they turn yellow then red just before they fall. The sprays of tiny white flowers are sweetly scented, like orange blossoms and are pollinated by bees and ants. It flowers between September and November and male and female flowers occur on separate trees. It produces large fruit which are fleshy and red but only female trees bear fruits. These are edible and taste of onions. They are eaten by birds like the Hornbills, Louries and Mousebirds, mammals, monkey and baboon. The fallen fruit is eaten by bushpig, bushuck and nyala. It is also browsed by game, kudu, nyala and bushbuck and is used as fodder in times of drought. It is useful for a game farm. It also attracts butterflies as it is the larval host plant for the White-barred Emperor butterflies, the fastest flying butterfly in Southern Africa. Nine moth species also use this tree. Plant in full sun where it will get lots of water, Be warned that it is frost tender and is only suitable for warm Highveld gardens. The wood is used for furniture and beams and the bark is used medicinally for heartburn and dysentery. Roots are used to treat coughs, gastritis and headaches. The leaves are used to treat intestinal worms. It makes a good, fast growing street and shade tree. Plant it 4 meters from a building or a pool. It is a protected tree in South Africa. Named for Carl Gustov Ekeberg (1716-1784) a Swedish ships captain who worked for the Dutch East India Company. He was also a chemist, cartographer and a surgeon. Between 1742 and 1778 he made 10 trips to China and India and brought back plants for his friend Linnaeus. He wrote numerous books about his travels as well as one about inoculation. He was a fellow of the Swedish Academy of Science and Knight of the Order of Vasa.

Erythrina lysistemon

(Common Coral Tree)

Occurs on the Witwatersrand, Swaziland, Transkei and Natal. It is a lovely, small to medium-sized, deciduous tree with a spreading crown and brilliant red flowers in winter-spring. It is a handsome tree at any time of the year, and its dazzling flowers have made it one of the best known and widely grown South African trees. The red flowers are show stoppers and are loved by nectar feeding birds and bees and butterflies. It is the larval host plant for the Giant Emperor and the Protea Emperor butterflies and 11 moth species. Monkeys eat the flower buds. The roots are aggressive therefore plant it 6 meters from buildings, pools and roads. Plant it in full sun and be aware that it is frost sensitive when young so do protect them from frost. This tree is antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and analgesic. The bark is medicinal for toothache, to treat wounds, arthritis, earache and strips of the bark are used to tie bundles of herbs. Chiefs use the bark mixed with the root of the Cussonia as a purifying emetic. A branch is planted on the deceased's grave as this is said to protect the person in the afterlife. There are trials underway as the seed is said to be a painkiller. The leaves are used to ease the healing of sores, or boiled in water to make ear drops. The fresh leaves are also placed in the shoes to treat tired feet and cracked heels. The leaves are browsed by Black Rhino, Elephant, Kudu, Nyala, and Klipspringer, so it's great for a game farm. The seeds are eaten by Cape Parrots and Brown-headed Parrots. The wood is prone to wood-borer so the woodpeckers enjoy them.The roots are eaten by bushpigs and porcupines. The Lucky Bean seeds are put into wallets to bring luck. Branches can be cut and planted as living fence poles. Drought resistant. This is a popular bonsai subject. We planted one next to a Dombeya rotudifolia and as they flower simultaneously in early spring, it is a joy to behold! The name is derived from Greek erythros=red, referring to the red flowers. The seed pods are black and burst open to disperse the red seeds. The seeds are considered to be toxic but no deaths are recorded. The leaves are sometimes covered in bumps which are caused by psyllids which are insects that that live under the bumps. They cause no damage to the tree. They lose their leaves in winter and the new leaves in spring are enjoyed by many worms and caterpillars. Woodpeckers search the bark for wood boring insects.

Ficus lutea

(Giant-Leaved Fig)

An evergreen tree with a neatly flat topped canopy often twice as wide as the tree is tall. It has enormous leaves epitomising a tropical bounty. The figs are yellow, furry and fairly small and borne on terminal branches. They attract birds and bats. It likes good rainfall and will tolerate wind and salty sea spray. The name is derived from the Hebrew fag or the Persian fica referring to the edible figs.Host plant of the Fig Tree Blue butterfly and it is pollinated by a wasp.

Hippobromus pauciflorus

(False Horsewood, Basterperdepis)

This fast growing tree grows in forest and along streams, so it likes moist conditions. It is semi deciduous. The white flowers are small and grow in velvety heads which open in autumn. The leaves have a very unpleasant odour resembling horse urine, when crushed, hence the afrikaans common name. The new leaves are reddish in colour. The larvae of the Swallowtail feed on the leaves. It is used medicinally as the crushed leaves are used to treat a headache and the roots are used for dysentery, eye problems and diarrhea. It is also used as a love charm. The wood is used to build huts.

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