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Clematis bractiata

(Traveller's Joy)

This deciduous, twining climber or scrambler with woody stems can reach 5 meters. It produces lovely white flowers in summer and grows in most soils. It makes a trouble free and eye-catching sight. The untidy end-of-season growth needs to be cut back at the end of winter. It likes summer water and a dry winter. The leaves are traditionally used to relieve headaches, coughs and colds, chest ailments, abdominal upsets and as a soothing wash for aching feet, cracked skin, blisters and tired eyes. The inhaled scent of crushed tendrils and stems is said to clear a blocked nose, ease sinus headaches and encourage sneezing. The inhaled steam from the roots, stems and leaves in boiling water is used for relieving colds, malaria, sinus infections and asthma and a strong brew of leaves, stems and flowers in the bath relieves aching muscles, VD and thrush. Leaves are placed in the boots of hikers to relieve tired feet and blisters. They are also packed under the saddles of horses to prevent saddle sores. Leaves are also placed under a sun at to keep the head cool and to prevent heatstroke and sunstroke. It is also used as a good luck charm. The name is derived from the Greek 'klematis' meaning a vine branch, twig or tendril of a climbing plant.

Coddia rudis

(Small Bone-Apple)

Coddia are named for Leslie Edward Wastwell Codd (1908-1999) a South African botanist and agriculturist. He was highly educated and wrote 2 Botanica books and 160 publications. The main stem of Coddia rudis is usually short and multi-stemmed with arching branches. The bark is pale grey and contrasts beautifully against the green leaves. It produces white flowers in summer, followed by small fruits. It forms a compact shrub when browsed by game. The small, shiny leaves are borne in clusters or on opposite sides of the stems. This shrub is best used in an informal garden, a wild garden or an exclusion zone. Plant it in full sun and it is an excellent plant for a container and bonsai. Suitable for small garden. The fruit is eaten by people and birds and the leaves are heavily browsed by game. Named for Leslie Edward Wastell Codd 1908-1999.

Coleonema album

(White Confetti Bush)

The name is derived from the Greek 'koleus' = a sheath and 'nema'= thread referring to the filaments of the stamens.This decorative, evergreen shrub with dainty, sweetly scented, white flowers in spring make this buchu an ideal garden plant and suitable for floral arrangements. It grows to 1m high and 0.75m wide. This species requires full sun and soil that is acid, well drained and composted. Add a layer of mulch to keep the soil and roots cool in summer, retain moisture and reduce weeds. They require good watering in winter and moderate watering in summer. Do not allow plants to dry out. It is an ideal container plant for a sunny position on a patio and can also be hedged. It attracts birds. The aromatic leaves contain essential oils and are used by fishermen to remove the fishy smell from their hands. They can also be used as an insect repellent by rubbing the leaves onto the skin or boiled in water and spayed on plants or even clothes. For an invigorating bath, add leaves to the bathwater. It is used medicinally for colds, abdominal pains and flu. The leaves can be chewed for a sore throat and a tea can be made by steeping some leaves in a cup of boiling water. The leaves are used to make cosmetics, deodorant and perfume. A wealth of uses just from the leaves.

Coleonema pulchellum

(Dark Pink Confetti Bush)

The name is derived from the Greek 'koleus' = a sheath and 'nema'= thread referring to the filaments of the stamens.This is an evergreen, upright, reasonably dense shrub which grows to 1,5m high and 1,5m wide which produces pink flowers in winter and spring. The foliage is fine with needle-shaped leaves which have an aromatic fragrance when crushed. It grows successfully along the coast and fits in well with members of the Protea family and other fynbos. If you have sufficient space, plant in groups of 3 or 5.The confetti bush will get woody after a few years and should then be replaced. Do not allow young plants to dry out but once established they will survive periods of drought. They respond to good watering in winter and moderate watering in summer. It looks amazing when is used as a hedge or for screening .It is suitable for coastal gardens.

Combretum bracteosum

(Hiccup Nut)

The hiccup nut is a usually a shrub or small tree which scrambles into nearby vegetation. It grows up to between 2 and 4 m high, although if it has support from other trees it can reach up to 8 m. It spreads to between 4 and 5 m wide. The showy, scented flowers are bright red but differ from those of other Combetum in that the petals are obvious and are responsible for most of the colour. Flowering occurs in spring, followed by the edible fruit which is not at all like the other Combretums as it is nut shaped. Hence the common name. It is not known whether the nuts cause or cure hiccups. The nuts are edible once roasted. It likes a warm summer with a moderate of high rainfall. It should be planted in a full sun or semi-shade and it an ideal plant for screening and hedging. It also attracts birds and Striped Policeman and the Spotted Sailor butterflies and a moth specie as this is their larval host.

Combretum erythrophyllum

(River Bushwillow)

This is a medium to large deciduous tree with reddish autumn colours. Flowers are cream to pale yellow and open in September to November. The fruit are small, 4-winged and a greenish brown colour, ripening to yellowish brown and drying to a honey-brown. The fruit is poisonous and results in hiccups. A popular shade tree, surprisingly drought and frost resistant and fast growing, reaching 4-6 m in three years. The gum has interesting antibiotic properties and is applied to sores. It is non-toxic, elastic, producing a non-cracking varnish. Ornaments, cattle troughs and grain mortars are made from the wood, which is yellow, tough and easily worked. It is also used as fire wood. A dark, rich brown dye is extracted from the roots which is used when tanning hides. The dried fruits also work well in flower arrangements and are eaten by pied barbets. It has non-aggressive roots and attracts birds. It is the larval host plant for several butterflies like Liordes Hairtail, Red -tab Policeman, Two-pip Policeman and the Orange-barred Playboy. I just love these charming butterfly names! It is an ideal tree for wetlands as well as game farms as it is browsed by Kudu, Bushbuck, Eland, Giraffe and Elephant. It is often used as a street tree, in large gardens and along rivers. There are many medicinal uses. Root bark and stem bark are used to treat a cough, infertility, leprosy and VD. The bark is taken during labour to ease childbirth, to treat infertility and as an aphrodisiac. The leaves are used for coughs and abdominal pains.The roots, which some regard as poisonous are used as a purgative, to treat venereal diseases and as a prophylactic for V.D. The roots are fed to dogs by the Zulu to fatten them up.

Combretum krausii

(Forest Bushwillow)

This is a medium to large tree that is mostly evergreen but can be deciduous or semi-deciduous. The beautifully decorative leaves turn bright red to purple in winter, dropping just before flowering, which starts around August and continues through to November. The green flowers open in spring. It is reasonably drought resistant and cold resistant and is fast growing. The young stems are pliable and used in basket-making. The wood is tough and yellowish in colour but the sawdust can cause a skin irritation. The root is used medicinally as anti diuretics, lotions for eye infections, as well as an antiseptic. It stimulates the appetite and strengthens the spinal column. Root powder is put into wounds to encourage healing. Plant it 5 meters from buildings and pools.

Combretum molle

(Velvet Bushwillow)

Velvet bush willow is a small to medium-sized deciduous tree that grows to 13 meters with a rounded crown. It has grey bark when young and this becomes grey-brown or almost black when older. Young leaves are attractive with a light pink or orange colour. Its flowering time is Sept.–Nov. The flowers are in dense axillary spikes with a greenish yellow colour, strongly scented and attractive to bees and other insects. The fruit is light green with reddish shade which turns red-brown when dry. Dried fruit is used in flower arrangements. It is used medicinally as the boiled root decoction is used for abortions, and to treat constipation, infertility, diarrhea, bleeding after childbirth, convulsions, fattening infants, backache and for difficulty walking which is caused by sorcery, headaches, stomach aches, fever, dysentery and swellings, and as an anthelmintic for hookworm. The leaves are chewed, soaked in water and the juice drunk for chest complaints. They are also boiled and used as a hot compress for wounds and snake bites. It can also be used as an inhalant in a hot steam bath to treat headaches. It is termite-proof and can be used to make fence posts, implement handles and bowls for grinding peanuts and mealies and mortars. Red fabric dyes are made from the leaves, whereas dyes made from the roots are yellow-brown. It is browsed by game. It is the larval host plant for the Guineafowl and Morant's Skipper butterflies. Canaries strip the bark for nesting. A very useful tree.

Combretum zeyheri

(Large-Fruited Bushillow)

This medium-sized, semi-deciduous tree grows very slowly to 10 meters and is frost sensitive. It often has twisted trunks and the bark is light grey, smooth to fissured in patches, sometimes flaking. The leaves are large and bigger than many of the other Combretums. The yellow flowers occur in summer. The roots are used for basket weaving and to make necklaces for young girls and it is used medicinally to treat coughs and stomach pains.

Cotyledon orbiculata

(Pigs Ears)

Pig’s Ear. Named from the Greek 'kotyledon'=seed sheath and 'kotyl'= cup referring to the bowl or spoon shaped seed leaves. This fast growing succulent has thick leaves that are greyish green. The tall flower spikes produce bunches of pink tubular flowers in winter. These attract bees and nectar feeding birds like the sunbirds. The leaves are used medicinally for corns, boils and warts and the leaf juice is used to treat earache, toothache and epilepsy. Syphilis is treated with an enema made from the leaves. They are also dried and used as a protective charm for an orphan child. Carl Pappe, a physician came to the Cape in 1831 and he studied the medicinal benefits for epilepsy. He wrote Indigenous Plants Used as remedies by the Colonists of The Cape of Good Hope in 1847. These plants have escaped from gardens in Australia, New Zealand and California and become an invasive weed, probably because they require very little water. It is the larval host for two moth species as well as Pale Hairtail, Burnished Opal, Natal Opal, Common Black-eye, Henning's Black-eye and the Cape Black-eye.

Crassula arborescens

This is a medium sized shrub or small tree that glows silvery as a result of their bluish-grey foliage. It is an impressive looking single-stemmed, or many branched shrub or small tree, easily reaching a height of up to 3 m. The trunk is thick and fleshy and has a smooth, green-grey bark. The leaves show very little variation and are thick and fleshy, with a blue-grey colour, with a reddish rim, and the petiole is very short or absent. The star - like flowers are very showy and carried in dense branches above the leaves. They are white to pink in colour and open from Spring to Summer. After pollination, the flowers turn to a papery brown seed, which in itself is quite decorative. It attracts birds. This is the larval host plant for the Common Hairtail butterfly. Named from the Latin 'crassus'= and 'ula'= diminutive referring to the fleshy succulent leaves. It is used medicinally to treat epilepsy.

Crassula capitella

(Campfire)

This Crassula is sometimes called Crassula erosa. It is found in Gauteng, Free State and the Eastern Cape. It is drought tolerant and will cope with a light frost. it spreads by making runners so is ideal for a hanging basket. The leaves are bright green with orange tips but in the cold weather or in the full sun the whole plant turns dark orange to red. If it is planted in the shade it stays lime green. It has tiny white flowers in summer. This is the larval host plant for the Tailed Black-eye butterfly.

Crassula multicava

(Fairy Crassula)

This is an evergreen groundcover which is water wise and will happily grow in sun, shade or semi-shade. The pink flowers open in spring and attract insect eating birds and butterflies. It is lovely mass planted under trees as it doesn’t require much soil or water and won’t compete with the tree’s roots. It is ideal for small gardens, planting in containers or hanging baskets. The flowers are long lasting in the vase. It is also a medicinal plant as it is a strong emetic. This is the larval host plant for the Tailed Black-eye butterfly. Named from the Latin 'crassus'= and 'ula'= diminutive referring to the fleshy succulent leaves.

Crassula ovata

(Pink Joy, Money Plant, Penny Plant, Dollar Plant, Tree of Happiness)

This is a sturdy, branched, compact, rounded, evergreen succulent tree is thought of as a shrub growing from 1 - 3 m tall. It has glossy, dark to grey-green oval leaves on short, stubby branches and a robust stem or trunk. The leaves are often edged with red, more so if the plant is in full sun. The flowers are pink and the flowering time varies according to the climate. It is drought resistant. The stems soon become gnarled and stout, suggesting great age. It is grown all over the world, most often as a pot plant. The Khoi eat the roots. It attracts bees, wasps, flies and beetles. This is the larval host plant for the Tailed Black-eye butterfly. Slice a leaf in half and strap it to a wart and leave on overnight.It is magical and in the USA, Germany and the East it is planted into square, porcelain tubs to bring financial luck which gives rise to it's many common names. Named from the Latin 'crassus'= and 'ula'= diminutive referring to the fleshy succulent leaves.

Crassula spathulata

An evergreen groundcover which is frost resistant, drought resistant, fast growing in the sun, shade or semi-shade. The white flowers are seen all year. It would be good in containers or hanging baskets as it scampers over the edge of pots. It is very fast growing, covers quickly and is ideal for small gardens and retaining walls. This is the larval host plant for the Tailed Black-eye butterfly. Named from the Latin 'crassus'= and 'ula'= diminutive referring to the fleshy succulent leaves.

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