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Crassula swaziensis

Low growing succulent which is very pretty as the leaves are arranged in rosettes. It is low growing and produces pinky white flowers in autumn and winter. It would be great in dry places in a town house gardens or in pots. It would look lovely mass planted in a large garden. Drought resistant. This is the larval host plant for the Tailed Black-eye butterfly. Named from the Latin 'crassus'= and 'ula'= diminutive referring to the fleshy succulent leaves.

Crinum bulbispermum

(Orange River Lily)

This deciduous groundcover is frost resistant and fast growing in the sun or semi-shade. The stunning pink flowers are sweetly scented and are a show stopper in spring. They attract much admiration, as well as butterflies. This is a Highveld wetland plant so it would do well in a damp spot. It is magical as it is planted to protect the home from evil. It is used medicinally to ensure an easy delivery and to stimulate breast milk. It is also used to treat colds, rheumatism, varicose veins, reduce swelling and as a poultice for septic sores. Juice from the leaf is used for earache and a roasted slice on the bulb is placed over the ear to ease the pain. A brew of the leaves in water is used for malaria, rheumatic fever and kidney problems. It produces masses of seed and propagates easily from seed. The name is derived from the Greek 'krinon'= lily.

Crinum campanulatum

(Water Crinum)

A deciduous groundcover that grows about 40cm high, but it requires some effort as one should leave it in the pond during summer and remove it from the water in winter to prevent the bulb from rotting. It is a true aquatic species that needs to be placed under water in order to flower. It requires full sun and is an ideal plant for water gardens. The name is derived from the Greek 'krinon'= lily.

Crinum graminicola

(Grass Crinum)

A deciduous summer-growing bulb with a 45cm stem holding several white to pinkish-rose flowers with a very deep rose stripe on each petal opening during summer. It is slow to mature and takes a minimum of eight years before it flowers. The leaves are comparatively narrow for the large size of the plant. It is very difficult to propagate so enjoy seeing them in our grasslands. The name is derived from the Greek 'krinon'= lily and graminicola means 'growing among grtasses'.

Crinum macowanii

(River Lily)

The large, beautifully scented bell shaped pale pink to dark pink flowers, sometimes darkly streaked are displayed at the top of a long stalk (about 1-1,2m) above a clump of strap–shaped green leaves are seen in a spring to summer. As the plant is dormant in winter, it needs to be kept dry in winter.It is similar to Crinum bulbispermum but it has black anthers. It’s an ideal, frost hardy plant for wetland gardens and requires full sun. The bulb is used traditionally for kidney and bladder diseases, itchy rashes, tuberculosis and rheumatic fever. The leaves are used as bandages for swellings. Like the Crinum bulbispermum, it is also a protective charm. The name is derived from the Greek 'krinon'= lily. This specie is named for Dr Peter MacOwan (1830-1901) an academic, plant collector and professor who moved to South Africa for health reasons. He was, in 1869 the director of the Cape Town Botanical Gardens and curator of the Cape Government Herbarium. He was one of the first Professors of Botany at UCT..After his retirement he worked at the Albany Museum where many of his specimens were preserved.

Croton gratissimus

(Lavender Fever Berry)

This is an attractive and versatile deciduous shrub or small tree for the home garden. It is capable of becoming a large tree in certain instances and it may reach 10m high if there is sufficient heat and rain. It is a slender tree with fine, drooping foliage and a crown which spreads upwards in a 'V'-shape with drooping terminal branches. It bears small cream to golden yellow flowers in summer that are visited by bees. Fruit is formed between September and November and is a three lobed capsule. First green then it turns yellow as it matures. In late autumn the capsule dries out and explodes flinging the seeds some distance from the mother plant. The fruit is enjoyed by birds. It is a drought resistant and requires sun to semi-shade. It’s an ideal plant for containers. The root is used medicinally as a purgative or an enema for fevers. The root is also a protective charm and is used as an aphrodisiac.The bark is used for abdominal disorders and is rubbed into incisions on the skin for pains in the chest. The leaves are placed on hot coals and inhaled for insomnia. They are also placed in baths for fevers and bleeding gums. Despite being a poisonous tree, there are many medicinal uses. Powdered leaves are used to make perfume. The wood is heavy and termite resistant so is used for huts, fence poles and sticks.

Cryptocarya latifolia

(Broad-Leaved Quince)

An evergreen, medium tree with a dense crown. The bark is grey-brown, smooth with fine vertical fissures. The leaves are leathery, dark green with fine hairs above and greenish brown below. The white flowers are small and borne in branched sprays and they open in spring .The spherical fruit ripens to black. It should be planted in sun or semi-shade. It is medicinal and magical and it also attracts mammals. The name is derived from the Greek 'kryptos'= hidden and 'karya'= a nut as the succulent fruit is hidden.

Cunonia capensis

(Red Alder)

It is a beautiful and versatile, evergreen specimen tree with dark green serrated, glossy leaves and contrasting reddish leaf-stalks. The yellow and reddish growth tips are enclosed by two large stipules pressed together forming a spoon-like shape, from which it gets its common name 'Butterspoon Tree'. A relatively small tree, growing well in both sun and shade, it has a non-invasive root so can be planted 2 meters from a building or a pool. It requires a moist, mild climate and a generous supply of water. This water-loving tree is particularly suitable for marshy, water-logged gardens, to enhance natural water features, to grace streams and dams and is a good choice for large pots on a patio where it will grow beautifully for years. Trees planted in drier areas will need frequent watering, and shelter from sun, heat, cold/hot winds and frost. The large bottlebrush-shaped flowers that appear in autumn are sweetly scented and attract insects and butterflies. The fruits are small, brown, two-horned capsules which release very fine, sticky seed. The wood is used for furniture. Named after Johann Cuno 1708-1780 who was a botanist, merchant and poet.

Cussonia paniculata

(Highveld Cabbage Tree)

This small evergreen tree is drought resistant and grows in the sun. It is not suitable for coastal gardens. The green flowers open in Summer and they attract numerous insects, which in turn entice the insect eating birds. This structural tree has thick stems and drooping grey leaves and it attracts birds, butterflies and the Emperor Moth. The leaves are browsed by game like kudu as well a cattle and goats. The baboons and birds eat the seeds. The thick, aggressive, tuberous roots are peeled and eaten raw as an emergency food or as a source of water. It has medicinal properties and is ideal for a small garden provided that it is not planted closer than 5 meters from a wall as it has aggressive roots. Named for Pierre Cusson 1727-1783 who was a French Jesuit, mathematician, physician, professor and botanist who traveled extensively and wrote many publications. Panuculata refers to the flowers that are arranged in a loose cluster.

Cussonia spicata

(Common Cabbage Tree)

This small evergreen tree is fast growing in the sun. The green/yellow flowers open in Autumn. This decorative tree is a lovely form plant with bright green leaves crowded at the tips of the branches and long bare stems. The fruit are fleshy and purple when ripe and they attract birds and butterflies. Ideal for a small garden but it does have aggressive roots so don’t plant less than 5 meters from a wall or a pool. It requires good drainage and thrives on lots of compost. The Leaves are browsed by elephant and kudu and people eat the roots to obtain moisture. The roots and bark are also eaten by black rhino, baboon and bushpigs. It is frost tender in cold gardens. An infusion of the root is used medicinally for malaria, stomach complaints and V D. The roots are also chewed for virility and strength. They taste similar to sugar cane. The grated bark is used in hot water to make a poultice for cramp and muscle spasm. This solution is also used to bath newborn babies to ensure a strong child and prevent skin rashes and pimples. Some folk believe that it one is planted near the homestead, it will ensure fat, healthy children. Dried flowers are added to snuff. The leaves are used as a fish poison but are palatable to cattle and goats. Named for Pierre Cusson 1727-1783 who was a French Jesuit, mathematician, physician, professor and botanist who traveled extensively and wrote many publications.

Cussonia transvaalensis

(Transvaal Cabbage Tree)

Small to medium-sized tree up to 5 m, with attractive, coarsely textured grey-green foliage. The bark is corky and deeply longitudinally fissured. The small, green flowers are borne in dense finger-like structures in spring-summer and they are pollinated by insects. The flowers are followed by the production of small, purple-black berries, which are relished by many species of fruit-eating birds. It requires well-drained soil and a warm garden as it is frost tender. It can tolerate more water in the garden than what it gets in the wild and makes a lovely garden subject. It attracts birds. Named for Pierre Cusson 1727-1783 who was a French Jesuit, mathematician, physician, professor and botanist who traveled extensively and wrote many publications.

Cyperus alternifolius

(Sedge)

An evergreen shrub that grows to a height of 1m. The bracts are symmetrically arranged in an umbrella formation and held atop elegant stems that sway with the breeze, giving a tropical feel to the garden. It is a versatile plant ,easily grown and makes an excellent ornamental waterside or marginal plant for water gardens. As an indoor pot plant they are useful for a conservatory, or as interior plant for commercial offices, hotels and malls. Ideally in containers should be stood in water. Its fascinating shape makes it a great plant for landscaping, and as an accent plant or an informal screen. As a background plant, it combines well with other foliage plants or flowering plants in garden beds or borders. It is impossible to over water the ‘Umbrella Plant’ as it enjoys damp and boggy conditions. It can be grown in shallow water of small fish ponds as a water filtration marginal plant. It is excellent for a tropical water garden, a bog garden or wetland. The tall bracts are also excellent when used in fresh or dried floral arrangements. It is similar to Cyprus textiles and it is used to make baskets, twine and mats. The name is derived from Latin 'cuperos' and Greek 'kypeoros'= sedge or rush.

Cyperus papyrus

(Papyrus)

This very fast growing evergreen shrub grows about 2m high and 1m wide. It forms clumps of tall bare stems, each topped with a mop-like head or crown of thread-like flower spikes. This is the plant that the ancient Egyptians used to make paper. The dried, split stems are woven to make traditional doors and mats. They are also used medicinally as they are bound over wounds. Plant it near water or in the water in full sun. It’s an ideal plant for containers. The leaves are an interesting addition to a flower arrangement. Cut it back if damaged by frost. The name is derived from Latin 'cuperos' and Greek 'kypeoros'= sedge or rush.

Cyperus prolifer

(Dwarf Papyrus)

This is an evergreen water-loving, attractive, medium-sized groundcover that grows to 30cm high and 15cm wide. It has very inconspicuous leaves, represented by red-brown sheaths at the base. It should be planted in full sun. It is an excellent plant for the containers and is ideal for small wetland gardens. The name is derived from Latin 'cuperos' and Greek 'kypeoros'= sedge or rush.

Cyperus textilis

(Emezi Grass)

This evergreen groundcover grows to 1.5m high and 1m wide. It is an attractive accent plant for a dam or pond. It forms a clump of bare stems, each topped by a rounded head of narrow spiky leaves. The stems are used to make traditional sleeping mats. It is frost resistant with brownish flowers in summer. Plant it in the sun or semi-shade in a wetland or next to a water feature where it will get sufficient water. It attracts birds which use it for nesting. The name is derived from Latin 'cuperos' and Greek 'kypeoros'= sedge or rush.

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