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Rhoicissus digitata

(Baboon Grape)

This climber spreads to 10–15 m, but it can also be a shrub to about 1.5 m. The small, greenish-yellow, inconspicuous flowers are borne in clustered, drooping, branched heads in the leaf axils in late summer. Red-brown to purple fleshy berries, approx. 15 mm in diameter, resembling “grapes” but tasting rather tart, ripen from autumn to winter. It is made into jam, jelly and vinegar . A relatively fast growing and vigorous climber that requires sun with some shade and compost-enriched soil to thrive. It grows well on fences as a screen and it can also be trained around a pillar for shading on a pergola, or allowed to make its way up into a tree or spread across the ground as an attractive groundcover in full sun and in semi-shade. It can even be allowed to form a small loosely stemmed shrub. Once established it will tolerate moderate frost and drought. The flowers have nectar that attracts bees and wasps. The name is derived fro the Greek rhoia, = pomegranate; kissos=ivy. Most plants in this genus climb and have tendrils, but the reference to pomegranate is obscure.

Rhoicissus tridentata

(Bushman's Grape)

A strong, branched climber with decorative, serrated, grass green leaves can be trained into a large shrub. The yellow/green flowers open in summer and attract sunbirds. They are followed by fleshy, red back fruits which are loved by birds and people. These are used medicinally in childbirth, for fertility, colds, stomach, kidney and bladder aliments. It is made into jam, jelly and vinegar It is ideal for pergolas or as a groundcover for large shady areas, a worthy indoor foliage pot plant if kept in trim. Water it regularly. It attracts birds and butterflies and is browsed by game and black rhino. The tubers are eaten by bushpigs, porcupine and baboon although they are said to be poisonous. The name is derived fro the Greek rhoia, = pomegranate; kissos=ivy. Most plants in this genus climb and have tendrils, but the reference to pomegranate is obscure.

Rotheca glabrum ( was Clerodendrum glabrum)

(White Cats Whiskers)

Clerodendrum glabrum now called Rotheca glabrum White Cats Whiskers SA Tree No. 667 This small deciduous tree is frost resistant, drought resistant and fast growing in the sun or semi-shade. The pretty pink flowers open in Spring. They attract butterflies, moths, bees and ants. It is the larval host plant for 11 moth species and the Natal bar and the Purple - brown Hairstreak butterflies. It is also useful as the leaves are rubbed onto the hands and face to repel bees when collecting honey. The fruit is used to make a blue dye and is eaten by birds. It is useful for hedging/screening and it has non-aggressive roots. The branches are used for poles for hut building. The wood is hard and is used to start fires. It is resistant to salt spray so is useful for coastal gardens. The medicinal properties are varied. The leaves are used to treat intestinal parasites, coughs, fevers, to aid sleep and prevent bad dreams, for rashes and toothache. When crushed, the leaves have insect-repellent qualities and are made into a lotion to prevent maggots and parasites on the wounds of animals or as a wash for tick infections. It is believed to protect against witchcraft and is considered anti viral. Pounded roots are bound over snake bites, especially Mamba bites. Its also useful on a game farm as it is browsed by game and is ideal for a small garden. The name is derived from the Greek 'kleros' meaning chance or fate and 'dendron' meaning tree. According to legend these trees possessed medicinal properties and one took a chance on them as it varied in several species.

Rotheca myricoides (was Clerodendrum myricoides)

(Blue Cats Whiskers)

This is an evergreen to deciduous small tree/shrub depending on the environment. Ours in our cold garden are deciduous. It is not fussy requiring full sun, shade or semi-shade. It produces blue to purple flowers in Spring and Summer, which are very beautiful. The edible fruit is eaten by birds and monkeys. It is a lovely, shrubby tree for an informal border and is also an ideal plant for containers as it can be pruned to any shape of choice. It attracts birds and butterflies. It is used medicinally as the powdered bark is used to treat snake bite, sterility, impotence, body swellings, chest pains, colds, bleeding gums, indigestion and headaches. it is thought to be anti microbial. The dark purple variety is called Clerodendrum ugandens. The name is derived from the Greek 'kleros' meaning chance or fate and 'dendron' meaning tree. According to legend these trees possessed medicinal properties and one took a chance on them as it varied in several species.

Rothmannia capensis

(Cape Gardenia)

This evergreen, medium tree grows up to 10 m tall in woodlands but reaches 20 m in forests. It has a dense roundish crown. The bark on younger branches is smooth and grey-brown, but darker grey, rough and cracked like crocodile skin on older branches. The glossy green leaves are often crowded towards the ends of the branches and have little bumps. The beautiful bell-shaped flowers are borne singly in summer. They are creamy white with purplish red streaks and speckled inside the flower tube. They have a strong sweet scent, which lingers even after they dry. They are followed by round, hard, green fruits with leathery skin and marked with faint grooves. The fruits soften when ripe and turn brown. They contain many flat seeds embedded in pulp. The fruit is enjoyed by baboon, monkeys bushbuck, grey duiker and bushpig.. This beautiful tree is suitable for a small garden as it has non aggressive roots. It grows very well in light shade or full sun, preferring loam or sandy soils to clay. It grows moderately fast (0.7 m per year) and may flower in its second year, but most take a little longer. Do protect young trees from frost. It attracts birds and butterflies. It is used medicinally to treat wounds, leprosy, burns and rheumatism. The wood is hard and strong and is used hut building, fuel and tools. For Joran(George) Johansson Rothman (1739-1778) a Swedish botanist, physian and translator.

Rothmannia globosa

(September Bells)

This little know or utilized tree has been grown in Europe for more than a century. This slender tree, usually 4-7 m in height, can reach 12 m, depending on the climatic conditions. The bark is brown or dark grey, smooth when young, but rougher in old age and marked in rectangular segments. The shiny, simple leaves are oval or lanceolate with a paler underside which displays the yellow or reddish midrib and veins. Trees are usually evergreen, but may be briefly deciduous. The scented, bell-shaped flowers are creamy white, usually with pink speckles in the throat. The flowers are almost stalkless and appear from August to November. The trees are often in full bloom in September hence the common name. The fruits are round green when young but turn brown as they ripen from January onwards. The powdered roots are rubbed into incisions in some parts of southern Africa to treat leprosy. It is fairly fast growing and tolerates some frost but protect young trees in winter. It makes a beautiful small tree for townhouse gardens and as it has non aggressive roots, it is suitable for containers. Monkeys, baboons, nyala and birds eat the fruit and it also attracts bees and butterflies.

Ruellia otaviensis

This is a tough, low-growing groundcover, with funnel-shaped, purple flowers opening in the warmer months. It thrives in sun or shade and forms a good groundcover in difficult areas. It is quite drought tolerant and it should be trimmed back in late winter to keep it neat. A decoction of the leaves is given for weakness and the leaves are also used for ear complaints. named for Jean Ruel ( 1474-1537) who was a French physician and priest who wrote a treatise on botany, a massive work which is 666 pages long.

Rumohra adiantiformis

(Knysna Fern)

The glossy, light green, leathery fronds of the Knysna fern are coarsely toothed and roughly triangular in shape. The attractive foliage lasts well in a vase and is often used in flower arrangements. It is also exported for this purpose. This striking and beautiful fern is perfect for that shady spot in the water garden, near a water feature or a stream. It an ideal plant for a container on a patio but do water it regularly if not planted in a wetland garden in order to have a happy fern. Named for Karl, Fredrich Felix von Rumohr (1785-1843) a German art historian, art expert, collector of antiquities, poet and author. Towards the end of his life, he devoted his time to agriculture and cooking.

Salix mucronata

(Safsaf Willow)

This graceful semi-deciduous to evergreen tree grows to 15m with an open crown and slightly drooping branches. Older trees have beautiful fissured, brown bark, while younger trees have smooth, green-red bark. The leaves are simple, alternate and taper to both ends. They are glossy, dark green above and light green below. The leaf margins are serrated. They are browsed by stock, hippo, nyala, kudu, grey duiker and bushbuck. The African leopard butterfly's larvae also feeds on the leaves. Flowers appear in short spikes with males and females on separate trees. The male spikes are dense, yellowish and can be up to 50mm in length. The greenish coloured female spikes are shorter and thicker. The flowing season is in summer. Monkeys eat the flowers. The fruit is a small capsule, which splits to release seeds covered with white fluff. Traditional uses include, applying bark powder to burns, and brewing tea from the leaves to treat rheumatism and malaria headaches and it is a mild laxative. This tea is also used as a skin lotion and to stimulate hair growth.It is also drunk as an appetizer. The Zulu tie the thin branches around their waist to treat abdominal and kidney pains and to give them strength.Young tree branches are used to make baskets, fire by friction and covered in a protective mixture to ward off storms and lightening. The wood is carved to make household, as well as decorative items. The tree can withstand both frost and drought. It is a water loving tree so plant it near a pond or dam but it may have aggressive roots. It will attract herons, darters and cormorants which will use the Salix for breeding. The name is derived from the Latin salia=willow, implying to spring or to leap. Willow branches are very flexible and when bent and released, they spring forward.

Salvia africana lutea

(Brown Salvia)

This is an aromatic, evergreen, hardy shrub with unusually coloured flowers borne over a long period of time. It is fairly fast-growing and very attractive to wildlife. This is an excellent choice for coastal gardens, as it prefers light, well-drained soil and full sun. It tolerates strong winds, and is drought resistant. They are cultivated successfully further inland and upcountry, and it is capable of sprouting from its rootstock and recovers from frost damage. It prefers a warm sheltered spot in the garden if you live in a frosty area. Flowering begins in early spring, and the bright yellow flowers soon fade to rusty-orange and then reddish brown. After the petals fall, the saucer-like calyx, which becomes papery with age, remains as an added attraction. The flowers are both attractive and a curiosity. . They are sweetly scented and attract sunbirds and moths.It is the larval host plant to the Mocker Blue, Sabi Smoky Blue, Graham's Blue. Ketsi Blue and Variable Blue butterflies. A tea is brewed to treat coughs, colds, liver and digestive problems and female ailments and bronchitis. The name comes from the Latin 'salvere' meaning to save or to heal and 'lutea' comes from the fact that the flowers are yellow when they open.

Salvia chamelaeagnea

(Blue Salvia)

This is an evergreen shrub that is easy to grow, flowering in a range of colours through summer. With its upright growth and fresh green foliage it also provides texture and contrast. For best results, these plants require full sun, well-drained, good garden soil and regular water, especially in winter. Flowering bright blue during the long hot summers, these plants grow easily even in the dry landscapes, riverbeds and in sandy soil among rocks. It also attracts birds and it is the larval host plant to the Mocker Blue, Sabi Smoky Blue, Graham's Blue. Ketsi Blue and Variable Blue butterflies. A tea is brewed from the leaves and this is used to treat colds, coughs, diarrhea, flatulence, heartburn and female ailments.

Sansevieria hyacinthoides

(African Bowstring Hemp)

This is an extremely durable and tough plant with long, linear leaves, often with light green contrasting horizontal markings. It will grow in full sun but is far more vigorous and attractive grown in shade. It makes a large stem of long, narrow blooms, followed by orange fruit in summer. The leaves of Sanseveria are cut and heated and the leaf sap is dripped into the ear for earache and toothache.The root is used to treat haemorrhoids, and internal parasites. Chopped root is boiled, cooled and then strained and the liquid is drunk for preventing a miscarriage and easing childbirth. It is also drunk to provide protection from being bewitched. The leaf is pounded and twisted to reveal a strong and durable twine which is used for baskets, mats, hunters bows, snares and fishing nets. It can also be used to make paper. These plants have been exported overseas for years. It is an ideal plant for indoor containers as it purifies the air. The discoverer of the Sansevieria, Vincenzo Petanga wanted this plant named after Pietro Antonio Sansevierino (1724-1771) who established a garden of rare and exotic plants in the south of Italy but Carl Thunberg named it after Raimondo di Sangro (1710-1771) an Italian nobleman, inventor, soldier, writer and scientist.

Sansevieria pearsonii

(Elephant toothpick)

Sansevieria pearsonii Elephant toothpick This is an evergreen succulent plant with leaves that are stiff, erect and cylindrical up to 1,5m long, with dark green vertical stripes. They end in a sharp point. The flowers are white or tinged pinky blue and are produced in a spray up to 1m long. They open at night. The plant spreads by creeping and is happy in dry, sandy areas. They are useful as accent plants in a dry area and look good planted near rocks and Aloes. rope is made from this plant. The discoverer of the Sansevieria, Vincenzo Petanga wanted this plant named after Pietro Antonio Sansevierino (1724-1771) who established a garden of rare and exotic plants in the south of Italy but Carl Thunberg named it after Raimondo di Sangro (1710-1771) an Italian nobleman, inventor, soldier, writer and scientist.

Sansevieria trifasculata

(Mother-In-Laws-Tongue)

This is an evergreen shrub that grows to 1 m high. It should be planted in a semi-shaded area. It is an ideal plant for containers. You could mass plant them for a dramatic effect. It is used medicinally for many ailments and is used in rituals to remove the ‘evil eye’. It makes a successful house plant as it copes well in low light and only needs water every couple of weeks. Studies by NASA show that it successfully removes toxin of nitrogen oxide and formaldehyde so therefore improves air quality. The discoverer of the Sansevieria, Vincenzo Petanga wanted this plant named after Pietro Antonio Sansevierino (1724-1771) who established a garden of rare and exotic plants in the south of Italy but Carl Thunberg named it after Raimondo di Sangro (1710-1771) an Italian nobleman, inventor, soldier, writer and scientist.

Scabiosa africana

(Pincushion)

This is a fast-growing groundcover that has finely divided grey-green foliage. It covers 30 x 30cm in full sun and semi-shade. It produces a pretty mauve flower in spring and autumn on long stalks about 40cm tall. Plant these in a mixed border and use the flowers for the vase. The flowers attract butterflies and birds. The name is from the Latin scabios=rough, scaly and from the Latin scapies-roughness, scurf, itch, referring to leprosy; alluding to the plant's supposed ability to cure cutaneous diseases and as remedies for relief from 'the itch'.

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