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Sclerocarya birrea

Marula

Fruit eaten and used for wine making, seed for producing oil for cooking, moisturiser, baby oil, bark produces a pink-red dye, timber.
SA Tree No: 
360
Plant Type: 
General Size: 
Flowering time: 
Flowering Colour: 
Shrub Size: 
Large
Long Description: 
It is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree with an erect trunk and rounded crown and can grow to 20m tall. It is one of the plants that played a role in feeding people in ancient times. It produces yellow flowers in spring and these attract insects, ants, bees, flies and sunbirds. The delicious fruit ripens between January and March and is rich in Vitamin C and are eaten by animals and people. Elephant are known to travel large distances to find the trees in fruit. They then shake the tree in order for the fruit to fall. One tree in the Okavongo swamps produced 70,000 fruit. It is used for jam, jelly, juice, to brew a beer, sweet wine, port and Amarula Liqueur is commercially made from the fruit. Beer is made by putting the ripe fruit into a container and filling it with water. It is then left for 2 days before the fruit is squashed and the skins discarded. Sugar is then added and it is left for 4 days to ferment. This beer is commonly known as ' kick like a horse'. The Tsonga call the fruit 'Food of the Kings'.The seed are highly nutritious and taste like walnuts.They are stored and eaten raw or cooked with maize meel. They have a high oil content and are burnt as candles. They are pounded to separate the oil which is used in cooking , as baby oil or as a moisturiser. A decoction of the grey, mottled bark treats dysentery, diarrhoea, rheumatism and has a prophylactic effect against malaria. The bark is an excellent remedy for haemorrhoids. Roots and bark are also used as laxatives. It is used to determine the sex of an unborn child. A drink made from marula leaves is used for the treatment of gonorrhoea. Leaves and root bark are used to treat snake bite. Traditional healers drink an infusion before treating someone with gangreen. Sometimes one finds a tree with a wound, probably caused by a traditional healer or someone who collected material for medicinal use. It is fast-growing, with a growth rate of up to 1.5 m per year. This tree is very sensitive to frost and grows best in frost-free areas under warm conditions. If planted in areas where there is mild or occasional frost, it must be protected at least during the first few growing seasons. It would be wise to plant it on the northern side of a building where there is always enough light. It is not recommended for Highveld garden. It attracts butterflies and the bark produces a light brown dye which is used in basketware. It grows from truncheons planted in spring and is a protected tree. These are favoured by leopards who haul their prey up the straight trunk and settle on the broad branches to dine. Elephants love the fruit, leaves and bark as do warthog, waterbuck, giraffe, kudu, civet, primates and squirrels. Lizards also eat the fruit. It is the larval host plant for the African moon moth. The wood is used for pestles to stamp grain, drums, plates, spoons and dug-out-canoes also known a 'makoros'.
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